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Articles by Supriyanto
Total Records ( 7 ) for Supriyanto
  Supriyanto and Muhammad Iqbal Gifari
  The biocomposite which is both cellulose in waste of aren fiber (Arenga pinnata Merr) and Polyacrilamida (PAM) can be used to synthesis Superabsorbent Polymer (SAP). The characterization of SAP was studies. It includes determination of functional group by FTIR (Fourier Transfer Infra Red) spectrophotometer, the ability water absorption (swelling factor). The effectiveness of a fraction transplants (grafting) and endurance SAP in store water. The method compromises cellulose preparation with hydrolysis, using of electron beam machine to SAP production and SAP purification. The FTIR spectrophotometer result shows which the dominant functional groups are O-H, C-H and C=O. Meanwhile, the levels of cellulose, grafting factor and swelling ratio are 66.90, 64.20 and 899.83%, respectively. In addition depreciation factor SAP can keep the 50% for 2 days and 20% for 2 weeks.
  Increasing of green house gases cause climate change and it goes up world temperature 2°C. CO2 emissions are one of GHG and it is resulted by anthropogenic. Their source can be derived by primary, secondary and tertiary sources. There is no study about relationship between meat consumption as tertiary source and CO2 emissions in Indonesia. This study analyzed how meat consumption produces CO2 emissions in Indonesia and its province. The calculation used linier regression created from 169 countries in the world. The result of study shows that the average annual of meat consumption is 0.32 kg per capita produce 510 kg CO2 emissions from 2007-2014. Meanwhile in 2015 Kalimantan Tengah (Central Borneo) and Riau become two big provinces which produce CO2 emission come from meat consumption both urban and rural.
  Rossi Indiarto , Yudi Pranoto , Umar Santoso and Supriyanto
  Background and Objective: The content of polyphenols in cacao beans can be modified during the processing of cacao. This study aimed to obtain the fraction of cacao bean extract polyphenols with the highest antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds profile of extracts and their fractions on cacao beans. Materials and Methods: The cacao beans (fermented for 5 days and unfermented) were blanched (5 min; 95°C), followed with defatted, freeze-dried and extracted uses 80% ethanol solvent. The extract obtained was then fractionated using n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous. Extracts and fractions obtained are calculated for yield, total polyphenol uses Folin-ciocalteu reagent, total flavonoid uses AlCl3, antioxidant activity uses DPPH and FRAP methods, functional group uses fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and polyphenol compound profiles uses UHPLC-MS/MS. Results: The results showed that the aqueous fraction had the highest yield but lowest chemical content and antioxidant activity. The unfermented cacao beans extract undergoing fractionation using ethyl acetate showed polyphenol content, flavonoids, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and highest ferric reducing activity. The FTIR analysis showed that the cacao bean extract and its fractions had O-H, C-H, C=O, C=C and C-O-C functional groups. Cacao beans extracts and ethyl acetate fractions were dominated by procyanidin compounds, especially dimer B2. Cacao bean fermentation caused a decrease in procyanidin compounds (monomer to nonamer) and alkaloids (theobromine and caffeine). Conclusion: Unfermented cacao bean extraction is then followed by fractionation with ethyl acetate solvent, obtained the fraction with highest chemical and antioxidant activity.
  R. Sriagtula , P.D.M.H. Karti , L. Abdullah , Supriyanto and D.A. Astuti
  Brown midrib sorghum (BMR) is a potential crop as forage because of lower lignin content than that of non-BMR sorghum. The aim of this research was to observe the growth and production of brown midrib sorghum mutant lines at different harvest times. This research was conducted at SEAMEO BIOTROP, Bogor, Indonesia using factorial in completely randomized block design (7 x 3) with three replicates. The first factor was the BMR sorghum mutant lines of Patir 3.1 (non-BMR/control), Patir 3.2, Patir 3.3, Patir 3.4, Patir 3.5, Patir 3.6 and Patir 3.7, the second factor was the harvest times (flowering, soft and hard dough phases). Measurement on agronomic parameters were fresh and dry matter biomass production, plant height, stem diameter, leaf width length and ratio of leaves, stems and panicles. While nutrient parameters were crude protein, crude fiber, ash dan crude fat production. Analysis of variance followed by Duncan Multiple Range Test (DMRT) was done. The results showed that the BMR of P 3.7 and P 3.2 produced the highest fresh and dry matter production among the BMRs, but their dry matter production were lower than P 3.1 (control). Harvesting at hard dough phase produce the highest fresh and dry matter production and as well as produced the highest crude protein, ash and crude fat production (p<0.01).
  R. R. Utami , R. Armunanto , S. Rahardjo and Supriyanto
  Background and Objective: Cocoa bean shell (CBS) has phenolic content and potential as cheaper source of antioxidants. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of cocoa bean fermentation on total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of cocoa bean shell. Materials and Methods: Cocoa beans were placed in fermentation box following spontaneous fermentation for 24, 48, 60, 72, 96 and 120 h. The CBS was separated from the cocoa beans and extracted with acetone-water (70:30 v/v). Folin-Ciocalteu method, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) method and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were used to determine total phenolic contents, antioxidant activity and functional group of the samples, respectively. Results: For total phenolic contents, absorbance of various samples concentrations was plotted against gallic acid standard curve and the value indicated that CBS from partially fermented cocoa beans (24 h) contained the highest amount of phenolic content. Various concentrations of samples were also used for antioxidant activity measurement. Highest scavenging activity of 88.67±1.12% was obtained by 100 μg mL–1 CBS from partially fermented cocoa beans (24 h), while the lowest of 44.60±2.48% was obtained by CBS from 120 h fermented cocoa beans. A high correlation was observed between phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The FTIR analysis shows that CBS from 24 h fermented cocoa beans had more functional group compare to other samples. Conclusion: Fermentation of cocoa bean can affect total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of the CBS. Fermentation also causes functional group shift of CBS. The results of the study showed that CBS is a good source of antioxidants and phenolic compounds. Further study on the structural elucidation of the CBS individual phenolic compounds and evaluation of their mechanisms of action is recommended.
  Rossi Indiarto , Yudi Pranoto , Umar Santoso and Supriyanto
  Background and Objective: The activity of the polyphenol oxidase enzyme during fermentation and drying causes a decrease in the polyphenol and flavonoid content of cacao beans. Blanching is important to inactivate the enzyme. This study aimed to evaluate the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activity of cacao bean extract in order to obtain a polyphenol-rich cacao extract. Materials and Methods: Unfermented and fermented cacao beans were blanched using water at 95°C ±2°C for 1, 3, 5 and 7 min. The process was then followed with drying and defatting using n-hexane and completed with extraction of polyphenol compounds using 80% ethanol. The blanched cacao beans were analyzed in terms of polyphenol oxidase enzyme activity and color, while the extracts of dried cacao beans were analyzed in terms of the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase, color, total polyphenol content, total flavonoid content, radical scavenging activity using DPPH, ferrous ion (Fe2+) chelating activity and the presence of functional groups using fourier transform infrared (FTIR). Results: Blanching unfermented cacao beans at 95°C for 5 min reduced the relative activity of polyphenol oxidase by >99%, maintained the purple color of the unfermented cacao beans and produced the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Five minute blanching also increased antioxidant activity compared to the activity of unblanched cacao beans. The process of fermentation and hot air drying had a significant effect (p<0.05) on the decrease of polyphenols and the associated DPPH antioxidant activity in cacao beans. However, there was no effect (p>0.05) on Fe2+ chelating activity in unblanched cacao beans. Total polyphenol and flavonoid contents were strongly correlated with DPPH antioxidant activity but were not correlated with Fe2+ chelating activity. Conclusion: Blanching unfermented cacao beans with hot water for 5 min at 95°C was shown to increase the free radical scavenging activity by deactivating the polyphenol oxidase enzyme and thereby increasing the total polyphenol content.
  Chrysanta Aurelia , Agnes Murdiati , Supriyanto and Andriati Ningrum
  Background and Objective: Jack beans are one of the most underutilized legumes in Indonesia and they are rich in protein. In Indonesia, several traditional products have been developed using jack beans as the raw material but the skin is not used, even though it contains dietary fiber, e.g., cellulose, that can be beneficial to human health. The valorization concept is a trending topic that uses byproducts, such as jack bean skin, to increase the value of the raw material. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of the concentrations of sodium hydroxide (NaOH) and sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) on several physicochemical characterizations of cellulose from jack bean skin. Materials and Methods: Cellulose isolation was carried out by delignification using NaOH at several concentrations (4, 6, 8, 10 and 20% NaOH), oxidation bleaching using NaOCl at different concentrations (0, 3 and 6% NaOCl) and reduction bleaching using 3% sodium bisulfite. The isolated cellulose from jack bean skins was analyzed and its physicochemical characteristics, e.g., yield, cellulose content, color (lightness), water holding capacity and oil holding capacity, were examined. Then, jack bean skin cellulose was analyzed to determine its functional groups using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Results: The highest yield of cellulose (46.40%) was obtained by using 4% NaOH. The highest cellulose content [76.79% (%db)] was obtained by using 10% NaOH. Increasing the NaOCl concentration helped lighten the cellulose color. Conclusion: The optimal sample treatment consisted of a combination of 10% NaOH and 3% NaOCl to produce a high cellulose content, light cellulose color and FT-IR peaks similar to commercial cellulose.
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