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Articles by Sujata Jayaraman
Total Records ( 6 ) for Sujata Jayaraman
  Brajesh Singh , Mukta Jain , S.V. Singh , Kuldeep Dhama , G.K. Aseri , Neelam Jain , Manali Datta , Neeraj Kumar , Parul Yadav , Sujata Jayaraman , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey and Jagdip Singh Sohal
  Mycobacteria are dreadful human and animal pathogens causing range of mycobacterioses in different tissues. Due to their cell wall composition and their adaptability mycobacteria can survive in different habitats for years. Emergence of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains has complicated the problem of mycobacterial disease control. Therefore new drugs should evolve to fight drug resistance. Medicinal plants may offer a new hope as source of bioactive molecules for developing alternative medicines for the mycobacterial diseases. Presently used anti-mycobacterial medicines produce serious side-effects and cannot be used in animals because of risk of entry into food chain. Plant derived medicines may help solving this problem and fighting the drug resistance. The present study reviews the literature available on anti- mycobacterial plants and their bioactive molecules with hope that this effort will expedite the research on development of a novel plant derived drugs against mycobacterial diseases.
  B.J. Stephen , S.V. Singh , Manali Datta , Neelam Jain , Sujata Jayaraman , K.K. Chaubey , S. Gupta , Manju Singh , G.K. Aseri , Neeraj Khare , Parul Yadav , Kuldeep Dhama and J.S. Sohal
  Tuberculosis, an infectious bacterial disease that affects the lungs is caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB). It is the second most infectious disease after AIDS, which can affect both animals and humans. Johne’s Disease (JD) or paratuberculosis caused by in intracellular bacterium Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) is an incurable wasting disease known to affect a large number of domestic animals and poses serious threat to livestock industries through huge economic losses. Conventional diagnostic methods like enzyme linked immunosorbat assay (ELISA), Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), cultural isolation are identification for use in MAP detection while sputum smear microscopy and PCR techniques remain the gold standards for TB detection despite advancement in pathogen detection most of these diagnostic methods are time consuming and have low efficacy and this become a heavy burden to developing and underdeveloped countries. When nanoscale particles are used as tags or labels, measuring the activity or presence of an analyte becomes faster, flexible and highly sensitive. These advantages nanomaterials possess, research have now focused their attention to nanotechnology based detection. Though research have shown these test to be more sensitive, less laboratorious and less time consuming, more needs to be done to introduce point of care diagnostics into the global market. This review highlights the prospects of nanotechnology based diagnostic tests as valuable alternative for rapid detection of this economically important pathogen with high accuracy and precision.
  Tarun Kumar Sachan , Virendra Kumar , ShoorVir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Sujata Jayaraman , Mukesh Sikarwar , Sunil Dixit and Kuldeep Dhama
  Mycobacterial biofilm is a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface, which constitutes a protected mode of growth that allows survival in hostile environment. Biofilms can be defined as communities of mycobacteria attached to a surface. It is clear that microorganisms undergo profound changes during their transition from planktonic (free-swimming) organisms to cells that are part of a complex, surface-attached community. These changes are reflected in the new phenotypic characteristics developed by biofilm mycobacteria and occur in response to a variety of environmental signals. The biofilm-forming microorganisms have been shown to elicit specific mechanisms for initial attachment to a surface, formation of micro colony leading to development of three-dimensional structure of mature biofilm. They differ from their free-living counterparts in their growth rate, composition and increased resistance to biocides, antibiotics and antibodies by virtue of up regulation and/or down regulation of approximately 40% of their genes. This makes them highly difficult to eradicate with therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents. A greater understanding of mechanism of their formation and survival under sessile environments may help in devising control strategies.
  Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Sujata Jayaraman , Manju Singh , Bjorn John Stephan , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Anjali Pachoori , Kuldeep Dhama and Ashok Kumar Bhatia
  Cross reactivity of three antigens of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with sera of sheep endemic for Johne’s disease was evaluated. Out of 40 sheep tested by fecal microscopy, 72.5% were shedding MAP. Using protoplasmic antigens (PPA) from three MAP strains isolated from different livestock species and geographical regions, 90, 77.5 and 2.5% sheep were positive in goat (Indigenous g-ELISA) and cattle (b-ELISA) based ELISA kits and ELISA kit for small ruminant (sr-ELISA), respectively. Only 2.5 and 10% sheep were positive and negative in all the four tests. Native species specific (goat origin novel ‘Indian Bison Type’ MAP) semi-purified whole cell PPA based ELISA (Indigenous g-ELISA) was superior in reacting with sera of native sheep than the commercial PPA of bovine origin (Allied Monitor Inc., USA) and commercial ELISA kit for small ruminants (ID Vet, France). Lower cross reactivity of antigens originated from US and France emphasized the need to develop tests based on local strain of MAP than strains from different livestock species and geographical regions. This is an important finding against the use of ‘Global kits’ without validating in local conditions. Study showed that kits developed from local strains of MAP were not only superior but also cost effective and will significantly contribute in programs for the control of JD in native sheep population.
  B.J. Stephen , Mukta Jain , Kuldeep Dhama , S.V. Singh , Manali Datta , Neelam Jain , Sujata Jayaraman , Manju Singh , K.K. Chaubey , S. Gupta , G.K. Aseri , Neeraj Khare , Parul Yadav and J.S. Sohal
  Johne’s Disease (JD) is a contagious fatal granulomatous enteritis, known to affect ruminants and is caused by the acid-fast Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). The bacterium has also been linked to Crohn’s Disease (CD) in humans. Treatment options are scarce with culling practiced in the case of Johne’s Disease (JD) and administration of anti-inflammatory drugs for pain and inflammation in case of CD. In both cases antimicrobial therapy against MAP does not have the ultimate potential. The very promising, yet untapped potential of nanotechnology offers a suitable platform for developing new therapeutic strategies for diseases caused by the bacteria. Uniformity, specificity and reproducibility are some of the characteristics of nanotechnology that can be exploited for the treatment of infectious diseases. Factors like cost, efficacy, safety and bioavailability of drugs can be greatly improved when the drugs are delivered with precision and at a controlled delivery rate to the target location. Nanotechnology can help in achieving these targets. This review discusses the current scenario of available therapeutic approaches and proposes drugs targeting strategies and vaccine development methods for the treatment and prevention of MAP related diseases.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Sachin Digambar Audarya , Manju Singh , Bjorn John Stephen , Daljeet Chhabra , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Saurabh Gupta , Sahzad , Anjali Pachoori , Sujata Jayaraman , Gajendra Kumar Aseri , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Ashok Kumar Bhatia and Kuldeep Dhama
  Johne’s disease is endemic in the domestic riverine buffalo population of the country and bio-load of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is increasing in the absence of indigenous diagnostic kits and control programs. A new ‘dot-ELISA kit’ has been developed and validated with indigenous plate ELISA for the screening of buffaloes against Johne’s disease. Out of 156 serum samples screened 41.0 (64), 85.8 (134) and 85.2% (133) were positive for MAP infection by indigenous plate ELISA kit condition (A), condition (B) and indigenous dot ELISA, respectively. Dot-ELISA kit detected 85.2 (133) and 90.3% (141) buffaloes as positive together with indigenous plate ELISA kit in condition A and B, respectively. Comparison of ‘Indigenous plate-ELISA’ with ‘Indigenous dot-ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between two tests. Study showed that ‘Indigenous dot-ELISA test’ has potential to be sensitive and cost effective ‘Field based herd screening test’ for the large scale screening of the domestic livestock population against Johne’s disease. The study also showed that despite high slaughter rate, incidence of Johne’s disease was high in native population of riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and call for immediate control of disease.
 
 
 
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