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Articles by Steven E. Arnold
Total Records ( 6 ) for Steven E. Arnold
  Erik S. Musiek , Yufen Chen , Marc Korczykowski , Babak Saboury , Patricia M. Martinez , Janet S. Reddin , Abass Alavi , Daniel Y. Kimberg , David A. Wolk , Per Julin , Andrew B. Newberg , Steven E. Arnold and John A. Detre
  Background The utility of fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging in Alzheimer‘s disease (AD) diagnosis has been well established. Recently, measurement of cerebral blood flow using arterial spin labeling magnetic resonance imaging (ASL-MRI) has shown diagnostic potential in AD, although it has never been directly compared with FDG-PET. Methods We used a novel imaging protocol to obtain FDG-PET and ASL-MRI images concurrently in 17 AD patients and 19 age-matched control subjects. Paired FDG-PET and ASL-MRI images from 19 control subjects and 15 AD patients were included for qualitative analysis, and paired images from 18 control subjects and 13 AD patients were suitable for quantitative analyses. Results The combined imaging protocol was well tolerated. Both modalities revealed similar regional abnormalities in AD, as well as comparable sensitivity and specificity for the detection of AD after visual review by two expert readers. Interobserver agreement was better for FDG-PET (κ: 0.75, standard error: 0.12) than ASL-MRI (κ: 0.51, standard error: 0.15); intermodality agreement was moderate to strong (κ: 0.45–0.61); and readers were more confident of FDG-PET reads. Simple quantitative analysis of global cerebral fluorodeoxyglucose uptake (FDG-PET) or whole-brain cerebral blood flow (ASL-MRI) showed excellent diagnostic accuracy for both modalities, with area under receiver operating characteristic curves of 0.90 for FDG-PET (95% confidence interval: 0.79–0.99) and 0.91 for ASL-MRI (95% confidence interval: 0.80–1.00). Conclusions Our results demonstrate that FDG-PET and ASL-MRI identify similar regional abnormalities and have comparable diagnostic accuracy in a small population of AD patients, and support the further study of ASL-MRI in dementia diagnosis.
  Martin Farlow , Steven E. Arnold , Christopher H. van Dyck , Paul S. Aisen , B. Joy Snider , Anton P. Porsteinsson , Stuart Friedrich , Robert A. Dean , Celedon Gonzales , Gopalan Sethuraman , Ronald B. DeMattos , Richard Mohs , Steven M. Paul and Eric R. Siemers
  Objectives To assess the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics of 12 weekly infusions of solanezumab, an anti-β-amyloid (Aβ) antibody, in patients with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer‘s disease. Cognitive measures were also obtained. Methods In this phase 2, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial, 52 patients with Alzheimer‘s disease received placebo or antibody (100 mg every 4 weeks, 100 mg weekly, 400 mg every 4 weeks, or 400 mg weekly) for 12 weeks. Safety and biomarker evaluations continued until 1 year after randomization. Both magnetic resonance imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) examinations were conducted at baseline and after the active treatment period. The Aβ concentrations were measured in plasma and CSF, and the Alzheimer‘s Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion was administered. Results Clinical laboratory values, CSF cell counts, and magnetic resonance imaging scans were unchanged by treatment, and no adverse events could be clearly related to antibody administration. Total (bound to antibody and unbound) Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 in plasma increased in a dose-dependent manner. Antibody treatment similarly increased total Aβ1–40 and Aβ1–42 in CSF. For patients taking 400 mg weekly, antibody treatment decreased unbound Aβ1–40 in CSF (P < .01), but increased unbound Aβ1–42 in CSF in a dose-dependent manner. The Alzheimer‘s Disease Assessment Scale–cognitive portion was unchanged after the 12-week antibody administration. Conclusions Antibody administration was well tolerated with doses up to 400 mg weekly. The dose-dependent increase in unbound CSF Aβ1–42 suggests that this antibody may shift Aβ equilibria sufficiently to mobilize Aβ1–42 from amyloid plaques.
  Daniel J. Glass and Steven E. Arnold
  There is increasing urgency to develop effective prevention and treatment for Alzheimer‘s disease (AD) as the aging population swells. Yet, our understanding remains limited for the elemental pathophysiological mechanisms of AD dementia that may be causal, compensatory, or epiphenomenal. To this end, we consider AD and why it exists from the perspectives of natural selection, adaptation, genetic drift, and other evolutionary forces. We discuss the connection between the apolipoprotein E (APOE) allele and AD, with special consideration to APOE ɛ4 as the ancestral allele. The phylogeny of AD-like changes across species is also examined, and pathology and treatment implications of AD are discussed from the perspective of evolutionary medicine. In particular, amyloid-β (Aβ) neuritic plaques and paired helical filament tau (PHFtau) neurofibrillary tangles have been traditionally viewed as injurious pathologies to be targeted, but may be preservative or restorative processes that mitigate harmful neurodegenerative processes or may be epiphenoma of the essential processes that cause neurodegeneration. Thus, we raise fundamental questions about current strategies for AD prevention and therapeutics.
  Mary D. Naylor , Jason H. Karlawish , Steven E. Arnold , Ara S. Khachaturian , Zaven S. Khachaturian , Virginia M.-Y. Lee , Matthew Baumgart , Sube Banerjee , Cornelia Beck , Kaj Blennow , Ron Brookmeyer , Kurt R. Brunden , Kathleen C. Buckwalter , Meryl Comer , Kenneth Covinsky , Lynn Friss Feinberg , Giovanni Frisoni , Colin Green , Renato Maia Guimaraes , Lisa P. Gwyther , Franz F. Hefti , Michael Hutton , Claudia Kawas , David M. Kent , Lewis Kuller , Kenneth M. Langa , Robert W. Mahley , Katie Maslow , Colin L. Masters , Diane E. Meier , Peter J. Neumann , Steven M. Paul , Ronald C. Petersen , Mark A. Sager , Mary Sano , Dale Schenk , Holly Soares , Reisa A. Sperling , Sidney M. Stahl , Vivianna van Deerlin , Yaakov Stern , David Weir , David A. Wolk and John Q. Trojanowski
  To address the pending public health crisis due to Alzheimer‘s disease (AD) and related neurodegenerative disorders, the Marian S. Ware Alzheimer Program at the University of Pennsylvania held a meeting entitled "State of the Science Conference on the Advancement of Alzheimer's Diagnosis, Treatment and Care," on June 21-22, 2012. The meeting comprised four workgroups focusing on Biomarkers; Clinical Care and Health Services Research; Drug Development; and Health Economics, Policy, and Ethics. The workgroups shared, discussed, and compiled an integrated set of priorities, recommendations, and action plans, which are presented in this article.
  John Q. Trojanowski , Steven E. Arnold , Jason H. Karlawish , Mary Naylor , Kurt R. Brunden and Virginia M.-Y. Lee
  The emerging global epidemic of Alzheimer‘s disease (AD) demands novel paradigms to address the two unmet needs of the field: (a) cost-effective health care delivery programs/services, and (b) clinical and basic research to accelerate therapy discovery/development. This report outlines a model demonstration project, the Marian S. Ware Alzheimer Program at the University of Pennsylvania, which was designed to achieve four specific aims: (1) improve the integration and continuity of AD care; (2) identify biomarkers that detect the earliest presence of AD and related neurodegenerative cognitive disorders; (3) enhance both the design and conduct of clinical trials as well as review their results to more effectively test new AD therapies and translate valuable therapies into clinical practice; and (4) discover and develop novel disease-modifying small molecule treatments for AD. The ”Ware-UPenn“ program has been presented in this report as a useful prototype for partnerships between private philanthropy and academia in planning and developing programs to address a major national public health problem.
  Mitchel A. Kling , John Q. Trojanowski , David A. Wolk , Virginia M.Y. Lee and Steven E. Arnold
  Vascular disease was once considered the principal cause of aging-related dementia. More recently, however, research emphasis has shifted to studies of progressive neurodegenerative disease processes, such as those giving rise to neuritic plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, and Lewy bodies. Although these studies have led to critical insights and potential therapeutic strategies, interest in the role of systemic and cerebrovascular disease mechanisms waned and has received relatively less attention and research support. Recent studies suggest that vascular disease mechanisms play an important role in the risk for aging-related cognitive decline and disorders. Vascular disease frequently coexists with cognitive decline in aging individuals, shares many risk factors with dementias considered to be of the ”Alzheimer type,“ and is observed more frequently than expected in postmortem material from individuals manifesting ”specific“ disease stigmata, such as abundant plaques and tangles. Considerable difficulties have emerged in attempting to classify dementias as being related to vascular versus neurodegenerative causes, and several systems of criteria have been used. Despite multiple attempts, a lack of consensus remains regarding the optimal means of incorporating vascular disease into clinical diagnostic, neurocognitive, or neuropathologic classification schemes for dementias. We propose here an integrative, rather than a strictly taxonomic, approach to the study and elucidation of how vascular disease mechanisms contribute to the development of dementias. We argue that, instead of discriminating between, for example, ”Alzheimer's disease,“ ”vascular dementia,“ and other diseases, there is a greater need to focus clinical and research efforts on elucidating specific pathophysiologic mechanisms that contribute to dementia phenotypes and neuropathologic outcomes. We outline a multitiered strategy, beginning with clinical and public health interventions that can be implemented immediately, enhancements to ongoing longitudinal studies to increase their informative value, and new initiatives to capitalize on recent advances in systems biology and network medicine. This strategy will require funding from multiple public and private sources to support collaborative and interdisciplinary research efforts to take full advantage of these opportunities and realize their societal benefits.
 
 
 
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