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Articles by Stanley L. Hazen
Total Records ( 2 ) for Stanley L. Hazen
  Teresa A. Evans , Sandra L. Siedlak , Liang Lu , Xiaoming Fu , Zeneng Wang , Woody R. McGinnis , Evelyn Fakhoury , Rudy J. Castellani , Stanley L. Hazen , William J. Walsh , Allen T. Lewis , Robert G. Salomon , Mark A. Smith , George Perry and Xiongwei Zhu
  Oxidative damage has been documented in the peripheral tissues of autism patients. In this study, we sought evidence of oxidative injury in autistic brain. Carboxyethyl pyrrole (CEP) and iso[4]levuglandin (iso[4]LG)E2-protein adducts, that are uniquely generated through peroxidation of docosahexaenoate and arachidonate-containing lipids respectively, and heme oxygenase-1 were detected immunocytochemically in cortical brain tissues and by ELISA in blood plasma. Significant immunoreactivity toward all three of these markers of oxidative damage in the white matter and often extending well into the grey matter of axons was found in every case of autism examined. This striking threadlike pattern appears to be a hallmark of the autistic brain as it was not seen in any control brain, young or aged, used as controls for the oxidative assays. Western blot and immunoprecipitation analysis confirmed neurofilament heavy chain to be a major target of CEP-modification. In contrast, in plasma from 27 autism spectrum disorder patients and 11 age-matched healthy controls we found similar levels of plasma CEP (124.5 ± 57.9 versus 110.4 ± 30.3 pmol/mL), iso[4]LGE2 protein adducts (16.7 ± 5.8 versus 13.4 ± 3.4 nmol/mL), anti-CEP (1.2 ± 0.7 versus 1.2 ± 0.3) and anti-iso[4]LGE2 autoantibody titre (1.3 ± 1.6 versus 1.0 ± 0.9), and no differences between the ratio of NO2Tyr/Tyr (7.81 E-06 ± 3.29 E-06 versus 7.87 E-06 ± 1.62 E-06). These findings provide the first direct evidence of increased oxidative stress in the autistic brain. It seems likely that oxidative injury of proteins in the brain would be associated with neurological abnormalities and provide a cellular basis at the root of autism spectrum disorders.
  Michael E. Greenberg , Xin-Min Li , Bogdan G. Gugiu , Xiaodong Gu , Jun Qin , Robert G. Salomon and Stanley L. Hazen
  An essential feature of the innate immune system is maintaining cellular homeostasis by identifying and removing senescent and apoptotic cells and modified lipoproteins. Identification is achieved through the recognition of molecular patterns, including structurally distinct oxidized phospholipids, on target cells by macrophage receptors. Both the structural nature of the molecular patterns recognized and their orientation within membranes has remained elusive. We recently described the membrane conformation of an endogenous oxidized phospholipid ligand for macrophage scavenger receptor CD36, where the truncated oxidized sn-2 fatty acid moiety protrudes into the aqueous phase, rendering it accessible for recognition. Herein we examine the generality of this conformational motif for peroxidized glycerophospholipids within membranes. Our data reveal that the addition of a polar oxygen atom on numerous peroxidized fatty acids reorients the acyl chain, whereby it no longer remains buried within the membrane interior but rather protrudes into the aqueous compartment. Moreover, we show that neither a conformational change in the head group relative to the membrane surface nor the presence of a polar head group is essential for CD36 recognition of free oxidized phospholipid ligands within membranes. Rather, our results suggest the following global phenomenon. As cellular membranes undergo lipid peroxidation, such as during senescence or apoptosis, previously hydrophobic portions of fatty acids will move from the interior of the lipid bilayer to the aqueous exterior. This enables physical contact between pattern recognition receptor and molecular pattern ligand. Cell membranes thus "grow whiskers" as phospholipids undergo peroxidation, and many of their oxidized fatty acids protrude at the surface.
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