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Articles by Simon D. W. Frost
Total Records ( 2 ) for Simon D. W. Frost
  Robin A. Pollini , Kimberly C. Brouwer , Remedios M. Lozada , Rebeca Ramos , Michelle F. Cruz , Carlos Magis-Rodriguez , Patricia Case , Scott Burris , Minya Pu , Simon D. W. Frost , Lawrence A. Palinkas , Cari Miller and Steffanie A. Strathdee

Aims  To identify factors associated with receptive syringe sharing among injection drug users (IDUs) and elucidate the association between syringe possession arrests and syringe sharing.

Design  Cross-sectional study.

Setting  Mexican border cities of Tijuana, Baja California and Ciudad Juarez, Chihuahua.

Participants  IDUs in Tijuana (n = 222) and Ciudad Juarez (n = 206) were recruited using respondent-driven sampling (RDS). IDUs were ≥ 18 years and had injected illicit drugs in the past month.

Measurements  An interviewer-administered survey was used to collect quantitative data on socio-demographic, behavioral and contextual characteristics, including self-reported syringe sharing and arrests for syringe possession. Associations with receptive syringe sharing were investigated using logistic regression with RDS adjustment.

Findings  Overall, 48% of participants reported ever being arrested for carrying an unused/sterile syringe, even though syringe purchase and possession is legal in Mexico. Arrest for possessing unused/sterile syringes was associated independently with receptive syringe sharing [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 2.05; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.26, 3.35], as was injecting in a shooting gallery (AOR = 3.60; 95% CI: 2.21, 5.87), injecting in the street (AOR = 2.05; 95% CI: 1.18, 3.54) and injecting methamphetamine (AOR = 2.77; 95% CI: 1.41, 5.47) or cocaine (AOR = 1.96; 95% CI: 1.15, 3.36). More than half of participants (57%) had been arrested for possessing a used syringe; in a second model, arrest for used syringe possession was also associated independently with receptive sharing (AOR = 2.87; 95% CI: 1.76, 4.69).

Conclusions  We documented high levels of syringe-related arrests in two Mexican–US border cities and an independent association between these arrests and risky injection practices. Public health collaborations with law enforcement to modify the risk environment in which drug use occurs are essential to facilitate safer injection practices.

  Susan J. Little , Simon D. W. Frost , Joseph K. Wong , Davey M. Smith , Sergei L. Kosakovsky Pond , Caroline C. Ignacio , Neil T. Parkin , Christos J. Petropoulos and Douglas D. Richman
  Following interruption of antiretroviral therapy among individuals with acquired drug resistance, preexisting drug-sensitive virus emerges relatively rapidly. In contrast, wild-type virus is not archived in individuals infected with drug-resistant human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and thus cannot emerge rapidly in the absence of selective drug pressure. Fourteen recently HIV-infected patients with transmitted drug-resistant virus were followed for a median of 2.1 years after the estimated date of infection (EDI) without receiving antiretroviral therapy. HIV drug resistance and pol replication capacity (RC) in longitudinal plasma samples were assayed. Resistance mutations were characterized as pure populations or mixtures. The mean time to first detection of a mixture of wild-type and drug-resistant viruses was 96 weeks (1.8 years) (95% confidence interval, 48 to 192 weeks) after the EDI. The median time to loss of detectable drug resistance using population-based assays ranged from 4.1 years (conservative estimate) to longer than the lifetime of the individual (less conservative estimate). The transmission of drug-resistant virus was not associated with virus with reduced RC. Sexual transmission of HIV selects for highly fit drug-resistant variants that persist for years. The prolonged persistence of transmitted drug resistance strongly supports the routine use of HIV resistance genotyping for all newly diagnosed individuals.
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