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Articles by Shoor Vir Singh
Total Records ( 9 ) for Shoor Vir Singh
  Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Neha , Mani Saminathan , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Bovine tuberculosis (bTB) is a zoonotic disease transmitted from animals to human and makes significant economic impacts due to high cost of eradication programs, trade restriction and serious consequences regarding public health thereby causing human tuberculosis. Mycobacterium bovis is the main etiological agent of bTB which is an acid fast staining bacterium due to waxy substance (mycolic acid) present in its bacterial cell wall. The bacteria can be transmitted by both aerogenous and enterogenous routes. Disease causes development of miliary tubercular lesions, chronic cough, obstructions of air passages and alimentary tract or blood vessels and enlargement of lymph nodes. A spectrum of Cell-Mediated Immune responses (CMI) predominate infection, projecting the role of macrophages and T-cell populations. In advanced stage, there is increased humoral response. Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) and real time quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) have been widely used for the detection of M. tuberculosis complex in clinical samples. Single intradermal test, short thermal test and Stormont tests are the valuable delayed type of hypersensitivity tests. Gamma interferon assay, lymphocyte proliferation assay, Enzyme Linked Immune Sorbent Assay (ELISA), multiantigen print immunoassay (MAPIA), Fluorescent Polarization Assay (FPA), immunochromatographic lateral flow test, single antigen as well as multiplex chemiluminescence assays are the various blood-based laboratory tests. Attenuated bovine-strain of tuberculosis bacterium, known as Bacillus of Calmette and Guerin (BCG) is used as vaccine. The present review addresses important insights into the bovine TB, a complex and multi-species disease, the etiological agent, advances and trends in its diagnosis, vaccine development and treatment options and the public health significance of this important disease which would altogether help devising effective strategies for prevention and control of tuberculosis in cattle as well as in wildlife.
  Sukantu Hajra , Shoor Vir Singh , Ashok Kumar Srivastava , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  The present study was aimed to diagnose early cases of paratuberculosis in goats by demonstration of Acid Fast Bacteria (AFB) in faecal and tissue samples; isolation of organisms from faecal and tissue samples, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and patho-morphological lesions in experimental infection using “Indian Bison Type” biotype strain S-5 of Mycobacterium avium ssp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Faecal samples from 142 goats from various farm herds of North India were subjected to smear (using centrifugation and decontamination) and cultural examinations. Isolation of MAP was performed in all faecal and 74 tissue samples by inoculation on Herrold’s Egg Yolk (HEY) medium with or without Mycobactin-J after decontamination with 0.9% Hexadecylpyridinium Chloride (HPC). Experimental study was conducted on 13 young goats (10 infected, 3 controls) where pathogenicity of the strain S-5 was tested by gross and histopathological lesions and plate-ELISA test. Characteristic gross and microscopic lesions were observed at 90 Days Post Infection (DPI) and onwards. Lesions showing infiltration of macrophages with AFB without granuloma formation, simulating lepromatous form of human leprosy and typical granuloma as in tuberculoid form were observed. Positive humoral immune response was observed at 90 DPI onwards showing antibody titer above the cut off value. There was apparent linear correlation between the antibody levels and days post infection. Performance of different diagnostic tests like examination of faecal smear by direct microscopy, faecal culture, scraping smear examination for MAP from tissue, pathomorphology and plate ELISA test had linear relationship among them. Such study ultimately may help the researchers to select the specific series of tests for detection of MAP from clinical samples.
  Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Sujata Jayaraman , Manju Singh , Bjorn John Stephan , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Anjali Pachoori , Kuldeep Dhama and Ashok Kumar Bhatia
  Cross reactivity of three antigens of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with sera of sheep endemic for Johne’s disease was evaluated. Out of 40 sheep tested by fecal microscopy, 72.5% were shedding MAP. Using protoplasmic antigens (PPA) from three MAP strains isolated from different livestock species and geographical regions, 90, 77.5 and 2.5% sheep were positive in goat (Indigenous g-ELISA) and cattle (b-ELISA) based ELISA kits and ELISA kit for small ruminant (sr-ELISA), respectively. Only 2.5 and 10% sheep were positive and negative in all the four tests. Native species specific (goat origin novel ‘Indian Bison Type’ MAP) semi-purified whole cell PPA based ELISA (Indigenous g-ELISA) was superior in reacting with sera of native sheep than the commercial PPA of bovine origin (Allied Monitor Inc., USA) and commercial ELISA kit for small ruminants (ID Vet, France). Lower cross reactivity of antigens originated from US and France emphasized the need to develop tests based on local strain of MAP than strains from different livestock species and geographical regions. This is an important finding against the use of ‘Global kits’ without validating in local conditions. Study showed that kits developed from local strains of MAP were not only superior but also cost effective and will significantly contribute in programs for the control of JD in native sheep population.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Sachin Digambar Audarya , Manju Singh , Bjorn John Stephen , Daljeet Chhabra , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Saurabh Gupta , Sahzad , Anjali Pachoori , Sujata Jayaraman , Gajendra Kumar Aseri , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Ashok Kumar Bhatia and Kuldeep Dhama
  Johne’s disease is endemic in the domestic riverine buffalo population of the country and bio-load of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is increasing in the absence of indigenous diagnostic kits and control programs. A new ‘dot-ELISA kit’ has been developed and validated with indigenous plate ELISA for the screening of buffaloes against Johne’s disease. Out of 156 serum samples screened 41.0 (64), 85.8 (134) and 85.2% (133) were positive for MAP infection by indigenous plate ELISA kit condition (A), condition (B) and indigenous dot ELISA, respectively. Dot-ELISA kit detected 85.2 (133) and 90.3% (141) buffaloes as positive together with indigenous plate ELISA kit in condition A and B, respectively. Comparison of ‘Indigenous plate-ELISA’ with ‘Indigenous dot-ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between two tests. Study showed that ‘Indigenous dot-ELISA test’ has potential to be sensitive and cost effective ‘Field based herd screening test’ for the large scale screening of the domestic livestock population against Johne’s disease. The study also showed that despite high slaughter rate, incidence of Johne’s disease was high in native population of riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and call for immediate control of disease.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Amit Kumar , K. Karthik , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amarpal , Shoor Vir Singh and Anu Rahal
  Owing to rising incidences of antimicrobial resistance against various chemotherapeutic and antimicrobial agents, the treatment of bacterial infections requires special consideration that may otherwise lead to grave prognosis. Simultaneously, evolution of many a Multiple Drug Resistant (MDR) bacterial strains have further aggravated the present situation. In this scenario, scrutinizing for some alternative yet effective antibacterial therapeutics like herbs, nutritional immunomodulators, bacteriophages, avian egge antibodies and others have become need of the day. Herbs have been a valuable source of medication in virtually all cultures and societies worldwide due to their important antimicrobial principles and phytoconstituents and wider therapeutic potentials. As various extracts of herbs and medicinal plants are being reported with antibacterial activities, much effort should be made in their identification, studying biologically active ingredients, efficacy and potency testing and scientific validation for their significant and practical multi-beneficial uses. The present review elaborates the potential role and applications of several herbs in treating bacterial infections and various types of bacterial diseases for safeguarding health of humans and their companion animals. It highlights the salient beneficial applications of traditional herbs and novel phytomedicines, from ancient periods to modern usages. Due emphasis has been given regarding scientific approaches to be followed and future perspectives with a vision to counter the emerging antimicrobial resistance. The review will certainly promote and popularize herbs as alternatives to conventional antimicrobials, particularly in the event of emerging MDR bacterial infections. Global usages of herbs as alternative and complementary medicines to various antimicrobials would lead not only to safeguard health issues and obtain optimum production from animals but will also ensure the public health issues including of food safety concerns viz., antibiotic residual effects in animal products (milk, meat) and zoonotic threats.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Mani Saminathan , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a well known herb possessing several health benefits. The steroidal lactones (withanolides) obtained from its roots have been implicated in a wide range of therapeutic activities and maintaining general health: Immunomodulation, combating infectious agents, anti-cancer and anti-epileptic, memory enhancer, to promote good physical and mental health, mood elevator, diuretic, general tonic and rejuvenator, stress reliever, cardiorespiratory endurance enhancer, anti-ageing, anti-oxidant, hypoglycemic, hypocholesterolemic and in common an effective adaptogen. Steroidal alkaloids and lactones are the active constituents of the plant. Withanolides as per theory occupies the receptor sites in the cell membrane thereby preventing the attachment and subsequent exertion of the effect of actual hormone. Withanolides have got analgesic and anti-inflammatory activity due to cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition property. Ashwagandha enhances nitric oxide synthatase activity of the macrophages, which in turn increases the microbial killing power of these immune cells thereby enhancing the Cell Mediated Immune (CMI) response. A glycoprotein Glycowithanolides (WSG) commonly known as W. somnifera glycoprotein is responsible for antimicrobial activity. Milk supplemented with Ashwagandha has been reported to increase total proteins and body weight and the plant alone helps in inducing tolerance and dependence. Its anti-stress and radiosensitization action; beneficial effects on cardiovascular system and sexual behavior; curative properties against neurodegenerative diseases and poisoning due to toxins and chemicals (including snake venom) has made this plant a treasure of nature. Thus the plant is an important component of many polyherbal preparations. Important for researchers and scientists is that biotechnologically advanced techniques; novel disciplines of bioinformatics and genomics can help in identifying and generating bioactive principles of the plant. All these salient health applications of this herb in biomedicine and veterinary sciences are discussed in this review focusing its potent role in maintaining sound health, immunomodulatory effects, combating infections, therapeutic usages and other beneficial applications.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar Verma , Sandip Chakraborty , Kuldeep Dhama and Shoor Vir Singh
  Since ancient era, herbal therapy remained as medicine’s backbone which is economic, safer and easily available to most of people in world. Among diverse herbal treasure, Azadirachta indica (Neem) is a highly esteemed tree with several beneficial properties and applications especially known for its incredible therapeutic and ethnomedicinal values for humankind. Neem is regarded as “free tree of India”, “wonder tree”, “Nature’s drug store”, Village dispensary”, “Divine tree”, “heal all”, “Materia medica” and “Panacea of all Diseases”. It is among highly exploited medicinal plant of Indian origin. It has been used in different medicinal systems: ayurveda, unani, homoeopathic medicine, therefore, considered as cynosure of modern medicine. All parts of the plant have some biological and medicinal properties hence valuable source of natural medicinal products. Compounds isolated from neem are broadly classified into two: (1) Isoprenoids (2) Non-isoprenoids. Isoprenoid compounds consists of diterpenoids, triterpenoids and steroids while while non-isoprenoids contains proteins and/or amino acids, polysaccharides, flavonoids etc. It is found beneficial in leprosy, gastro-intestinal problems, malaria, intestinal helminthiasis, tuberculosis, ringworms, skin disorders, boils, epilepsy, fever, respiratory distress, nausea, ulcers and in many other health related problems. This review gives a bird’s eye view particularly on history, classification, active principles, mechanism of action and potential uses of neem in safeguarding human and animal health along with the several commercial preparations available in the market.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Naveen Kumar , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Sarjeet Singh , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Bovine Johne’s Disease (BJD) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects ruminants worldwide and is having significant impact on the world economy and has been frequently reported from farm and farmer’s herds. An attack of Johne’s disease in a newly established cattle dairy farm consisting of high yielding Holstein Friesian (HF) cows in the Alwar district of Rajasthan was investigated for the first time in India. Since slaughter of cows is prohibited in India therefore management of bovine JD is critical for the success of dairy industry in the country and in this aspect the research paper is significant. Out of a total of 35 fecal samples screened by microscopy, 24 (68.5%) were positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Screening of 26 serum and 23 milk samples by ‘Indigenous ELISA kit’ employing semi-purified antigen of native strain (‘S 5’) of MAP, 24 (92.3%) and 14 (60.8%) were positive, respectively. Sensitivity of ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ with reference to fecal microscopy and milk ELISA was 88.2 and 90.0%, respectively. Screening of blood samples of 14 cows, by specific PCR (IS900), 5 (35.7%) were positive. Genotyping of PCR positive HF crossbred cows using IS1311 PCR-REA showed presence of highly pathogenic ‘Indian Bison type’ genotype. Comparison of 3 tests (milk ELISA, fecal microscopy and IS900 PCR) with ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between tests. Study also reported serious economic losses in terms of productivity (reduced quality and quantity of milk), reduced fertility and conception, decreased body weight and growth rate which left the farmer economy devastated due to attack of Johne’s disease in high yielding cattle herd of HF crossbred cows.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Kuldeep Dhama , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Naveen Kumar , Pravin Kumar Singh , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay Vir Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Mahima , S. Chakraborty and Rajib Deb
  Johne’s disease or Paratuberculosis has emerged as major infectious disease of animals in general and domestic livestock in particular on global basis. There have been major initiatives in developed countries for the control of this incurable malady of animals and human beings alike (inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease). Disease has not received similar attention due to inherent complexities of disease, diagnosis and control, in resource poor counties around the world. However, the rich genetic diverstiy of the otherwise low productive animal population offers opportunity for the control of Johne’s disease and improve per animal productivity. Present review aims to gather and compile information available on genetics or resistance to Johne’s disease and its future exploitation by resource poor countries rich in animal diversity. This review will also help to create awareness and share knowledge and experience on prevalence and opportunities for control of Johne’s disease in the livestock population to boost per animal productivity among developing and poor countries of the world. Breeding of animals for disease resistance provides good, safe, effective and cheaper way of controlling Johne’s disease in animals, with especial reference to domestic livestock of developing and poor countries. Study will help to establish better understanding of the correlation between host cell factors and resistance to MAP infection which may have ultimately help in the control of Johne’s disease in future.
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