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Articles by Shin-Ichi Ito
Total Records ( 3 ) for Shin-Ichi Ito
  M.L.M.C. Dissanayake , Shin-Ichi Ito and Yoshihiko Akakabe
  Plant based botanical fungicides are one of the most important alternative for hazardous fungicides. Antifungal activity (AFA), identification and understanding the mechanism of action of predominant antifungal compounds present in medicinal plant (Acorus calamus L) were carried out in this study. The antifungal activity and both n-butanol extract and purified antifungal compound of A. calamus (L) was evaluated against five fungal strains (Fusarium oxysporum, Fusarium solani, Colletotrichum gloesporioides, Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria solani) by using agar overlay techniques and bioautography. Isolation and screen of antifungal compounds (AFC) was carried out by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and bioautography. The AFC were elucidated and identified by using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The mode of action of purified AFC from A. calamus was studied by Evans blue staining and generation of Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Both n-butanol extracts and purified AFC exhibited different degrees of antifungal activity against all fungal pathogens tested. Both n-butanol extract from leaf and rhizome of A. calamus and purified AFC showed prominent one major spot on TLC after detection with p-anisaldehyde. In bioautographic technique, clear inhibition zones at same distance of TLC spot was observed against all fungal strains examined. The major purified antifungal compounds were identified as a β-asarone (94.3%) and α-asarone (3.4%). Fungal cells treated with different concentration of purified AFC showed a rapid production of ROS. The extent of dead cells stained with Evans blue dye seemed to correlate with the level of ROS production. These results suggested both n-butanol extracts and purified compounds from A. calamus show antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi and main compound attributed for antifungal activity is β-asarone. Furthermore, AFC caused damages to the cell membrane, leading to altering cell morphology and eventually cell death. Thus A. calamus extract has potential application as an alternative or integrated method to chemical control on plant diseases caused by five different plant pathogens examined.
  F.F. Abdel-Motaal , S.A. El-Zayat , Y. Kosaka , M.A. El-Sayed , M.S.M. Nassar and Shin-ichi Ito
  Eleven isolates of basidiomycetous yeast were obtained from Hyoscyamus muticus plants as endophytes; they were observed to comprise four Pseudozyma species based on morphological and physiological analyses. Molecular taxonomic analysis based on nucleotide sequences of the D1/D2 domain of the large subunit ribosomal RNA gene (D1/D2), internal transcribed spacer region of the rRNA gene (ITS) and mitochondrial rRNA genes (both large and small subunits) revealed that the four isolates represented distinct species and formed a cluster with Macalpinomyces ericachnes and Moesziomyces eriocauli (Ustilaginaceae). D1/D2 and ITS sequence analyses also indicated that the four isolates were genetically distinct from all known Pseudozyma species, suggesting that the isolates belonged to four new species.
  Franklin B. Schwing , Roy Mendelssohn , Steven J. Bograd , James E. Overland , Muyin Wang and Shin-ichi Ito
  Climate change impacts in large marine ecosystems (LMEs) are driven by global climate variability, often communicated over large distances by atmospheric teleconnections, and modified by the dominant local and regional ocean processes. The focus of this paper is to summarize the key processes and features that characterize the major coastal LMEs of the Pacific, as part of a greater effort to understand the role of past and future global climate change in driving (possibly synchronous) fluctuations in marine populations. The physical setting of five LMEs – the Humboldt Current System (HCS), California Current System (CCS), Gulf of Alaska (GOA), Kuroshio Current System (KCS), and Oyashio Current System (OCS) – and the mechanisms and impacts of climate variability on these systems are described. Because of their pivotal role in linking and perhaps synchronizing climate variability in disparate LMEs, we also review teleconnections and analyze past global atmospheric teleconnections and regional ocean response patterns. The major Pacific eastern boundary current systems, the CCS and HCS, feature similar dominant processes (e.g., coastal upwelling), and share atmospheric forcing from common teleconnection patterns that vary together. Sea level pressure variations forcing the KCS and OCS systems on climate scales, however, are not strongly teleconnected to the CCS and HCS. A common factor analysis of sea surface temperature (SST) within these ecosystems provides an example of how LMEs have responded to past climate variability. All LMEs display a persistent warming tendency since 1900, with multi-decadal fluctuations superimposed. However, SST fluctuations in the western Pacific lag those in the east by about a decade. Global synchrony in climate forcing is modulated by distinct processes within each LME, which reduce the correlation between long-term fluctuations.
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