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Articles by Shamala Subramaniam
Total Records ( 11 ) for Shamala Subramaniam
  Monir Abdullah , Mohamed Othman , Hamidah Ibrahim and Shamala Subramaniam
  Scheduling an application in data grid was significantly complex and very challenging because of its heterogeneous in nature of the grid system. When the Divisible Load Theory (DLT) model had emerged as a powerful model for modeling data-intensive grid problem, Task Data Present (TDP) model was proposed based on it. This study presented a new Adaptive TDP (ATDP) for scheduling the intensive grid applications. New closed form solution for obtaining the load allocation was derived while computation speeds and communication links are heterogeneous. Experimental results showed that the proposed model can balance the load efficiently.
  Farzaneh Masoumiyan , Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain , Shamala Subramaniam and Zurina Mohd. Hanapi
  The cooperation of Relay-Based Cellular Network (RBCN) and Orthogonal Frequency-Division Multiple Access (OFDMA) techniques provide rich of promising solutions especially in terms of Radio Resource Management (RRM). However, the main challenge of this cooperation is managing the resources in a dynamic system in the midst of co-channel interference. Allocating of the RRM associated schemes have been developed to overcome these interferences and to operate the relays in a dynamic and opportunistic manner. The deployments of these RRM schemes have enormous matrices of combination analyzing these performances are of vital essence. There are different simulator tools to address these needs such as NS2, OPNet, OMNet++, etc. An effort to enrich these repositories of simulators is to provide a discrete customization of analyzing the main aim of the study. A discrete event simulation for RBCN evaluation using a general-purpose programming language has been solved. The performance analysis orientation is on Signal-to Interference-plus-Noise Ratio (SINR) algorithm with specific focus on the transmission reliability of relays for channel fading in terms of spectral efficiency for downlink of OFDMA relay-based cellular networks. The developed simulator has been extensively tested and has proven to be a valid and substantial simulator.
  Hayder Natiq Jasem , Zuriati Ahmad Zukarnain , Mohamed Othman and Shamala Subramaniam
  As the Internet becomes increasingly heterogeneous, the issue of congestion control becomes ever more important. And the queue length and end-to-end (congestion) delays are some of the important things in term of congestion avoidance and control mechanisms. In this research we continued to study the performances of the New-Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) algorithm as one of the core protocols for TCP congestion avoidance and control mechanism, we want now to evaluate the effect of using the New-AIMD algorithm to measure the queue length and end-to-end delays and we will use the NCTUns simulator to get the results after make the modification of the mechanism. And we will use the Droptail mechanism as Active Queue Management (AQM) in the bottleneck router. After implementation of our new approach with different number of flows, we will measure the delay for two types of delays (queuing delay and end-to-end delay), we expect the delay will be less with using our mechanism comparing with the mechanism in the previous study. Now and after got this results as low delay for bottleneck link case, we know the New-AIMD mechanism work as well under the network condition in the experiments.
  Nooshin Nokhanji , Zurina Mohd Hanapi , Shamala Subramaniam and Mohamad Afendee Mohamed
  Clustering routing protocols are more energy efficient than the other types of routing protocols for Wireless Sensor Networks (WSN) which also improve lifetime, as well as scalability of the network. Energy Aware Distributed Clustering (EADC) is one of the cluster-based routing protocols proposed for network with non-uniform node distribution. The authors introduced a distant threshold to select the nodes which should communicate with Base Station (BS) directly in multi-hop communication. The value of this parameter has a significant impact on the energy consumption and lifetime of the network. However, the presented value for this parameter is not adequate. Thus, in this study a distance threshold analysis is performed on EADC in order to study the impact of different values of threshold parameter on the network. In conclusion, an appropriate range for distance threshold is introduced.
  Nadim K.M. Madi , Zurina Bt Mohd Hanapi , Mohamed Othman and Shamala Subramaniam
  The upcoming generations of cellular networks are foreseen to deliver a ubiquitous access to the rapid growing volume of mobile users. Therein, a stunning key feature of LTE is the ability to adapt the advancement in Radio Resource Management entity which scales up its potential to deal with multi-transmission scenarios by employing novel multi-antenna techniques on eNBs. This survey come in place to enlighten the aforementioned notions and deeply investigates the principles and approaches of LTE/LTE-A packet scheduling that are adapted in either Dl or UL channels. The main purpose of the study is to come out with a preliminary conceptual design of an optimal scheduling techniques in multi-cell heterogeneous environment keeping in mind the effects of inter-cell interference on the model overall QoS. Finally, it is recommended that a wise packet scheduling model for multi-cell LTE-A should involve an optimal trade-off between several QoS parameters having in mind interference mitigation as a main concern. Whereby, performance features of the known LTE/LTE-A scheduling categories, opportunistic scheduling, ICIC and CoMP can be realized in a single model.
  Mina Malekzadeh , Abdul Azim Abdul Ghani , Jalil Desa and Shamala Subramaniam
  Problem statement: Wireless Local Areas (WLANs) are subject to different types of vulnerabilities. Denial of Service (DoS) attack is the most current challenging issue on the WLANs. The objectives of the study were to (i) Provide an empirical analysis to conduct a series of wireless virtual carrier sense DoS attacks using wireless control frames vulnerabilities, (ii) Design a testbed to compared and analyzed the damage that these attacks can imposed on wireless networks, and (iii) Evaluated the effectiveness of such attacks on performance of WLAN in term of data transmission rate. Approach: The testbed employed ubuntu distribution along a network analyzer, Atheros chipset, and frame injection to the tested WLAN. All experiments were placed on two phases: Targeting wireless access point and targeting wireless client. Each phase presented the results of experiments under three circumstances: Before, during, and after the attacks. Results: Even when virtual carrier sense communication was disabled in the tested WLAN, still the target nodes answered to these forgery frames which made the attacks easier. Attacks over the wireless clients were more effective than the access point. In VCS-RTS-C the rate of data transmission from 3547.384 B sec-1 decreased to 9.185 B sec-1. In contrast with VCS-CTS-C, it decreased from 4959.887-44.740 B sec-1 and amount of decrease for VCS-ACK-C was from 7057.401-136.96 B sec-1. The obtained results demonstrated that during the attacks the target clients were completely disconnected from the wireless network and unable to do any communication. Conclusion: The influence of wireless virtual carrier sense attacks on performance of the wireless network was analyzed. The data transmission rate of the tested WLAN under the attacks was compared with the transmission rate of the WLAN operated under normal conditions. The obtained results confirmed the attacks could easily overwhelmed and shut down the wireless network.
  Ali Mohammed Al-Sharafi , Mohamed Othman , Md. Nasir Sulaiman and Shamala Subramaniam
  AMTree protocol is an active network based protocol that makes sending packets to receivers-after source migration-an efficient process. AMTree protocol was designed and tested for one mobile source sending to the multicast group. In this research we introduce a method that allows more than one mobile source to send to the multicast session. The results show that end-to-end latencies are minimized when more than one mobile source in the group compared to latencies for group with only one source.
  Maher Al-Sanabani , Shamala Subramaniam , Mohamed Othman and Zuriati Zukarnain
  The aim of the discrete simulation framework is to deal with issues of the next generation of wireless cellular networks (e.g., multimedia traffic, radio resource management and mobility‚Ķ etc) and to provide a platform for current and future investigations involving wireless cellular networks. The simulator is built from the scratch to enable customization requirements of any research and to provide the freedom to understand, configure protocol modules, draw desired topologies and specifies the movement paths of the mobile users and to plot the necessary performance graphs. In order to evaluate and validate the performance of the designed simulator, a simulation model for the wireless cellular network and mobile environment deployed. The performance of the developed simulator compared with the performance characteristics of existing algorithms. Simulation results verify the developed simulator is able to recapture the results of both the numerical result and simulation results of the comparative system utilizing an idealistic platform. In addition the simulator incorporates detail algorithms for the correlated components between the entities of the cellular networks and the development of the discrete simulator.
  Monir Abdullah , Mohamed Othman , Hamidah Ibrahim and Shamala Subramaniam
  Problem statement: In many data grid applications, data can be decomposed into multiple independent sub-datasets and distributed for parallel execution and analysis. Approach: This property had been successfully employed by using Divisible Load Theory (DLT), which had been proved as a powerful tool for modeling divisible load problems in data-intensive grid. Results: There were some scheduling models had been studied but no optimal solution has been reached due to the heterogeneity of the grids. This study proposed a new optimal load allocation based on DLT model recursive numerical closed form solutions are derived to find the optimal workload assigned to the processing nodes. Conclusion/Recommendations: Experimental results showed that the proposed model obtained better solution than other models (almost optimal) in terms of Makespan.
  A. Fua`ad Abdulrazzak and Shamala Subramaniam
  Problem statement: The communications domain has utilized the implementation of protocols for a wide spectrum of applications. This encompasses Medium Access Control (MAC) protocols. MAC protocols have been extensively researched from several angles. This encompasses the implementation in the area of Wave Division Multiplexing (WDM) networks and Mobile Adhoc Networks (MANET). The relevance of intelligence in sustaining the pre-requisites for dynamic reconfiguration has gained an integral attention in MANET. Approach: The implementation of Token Ring in MANET can be correlated to its complementary implementation in IP networks. In this paper, the limitation of Token Ring algorithm for IP networks in the context of intelligent processing has been researched extensively. An enhanced Token Ring protocol governed by intelligent processing has been implemented in this paper. The core of the new protocol is based on the circulation mechanism of the token. As opposed to the traditional circulatory mechanism, a software agent is designed to become an intelligent circulatory agent is this research. The developed software agent is utilized to implement prioritized token access subject to the traffic type. Each station is coupled with a software agent who cohesively collaborates to assign the token. Results: The proposed agent and the enhanced Token Ring implementation have been extensively verified through simulation experiments. A complete circulation of the ring is defined upon all nodes being visited at least once. Discrete-event simulation models were developed and deployed for the purpose of performance analysis. The results acquired validated the improved results of the new software agent based implementation. The performance metrics studied were average delay and average buffer utilization. Conclusion: The proposed algorithm has enabled to derive an ideal balance between the complexity of intelligent processing and the versatility of managing the token ring.
  Faruku Umar Ambursa , Rohaya Latip , Azizol Abdullah and Shamala Subramaniam
  In service-oriented distributed systems, beside time and cost, reliability is the most important concern to both service users and the service providers. Although, this has been many decades problem, the existence of large number of service systems on the internet today has rendered the problem more difficult. This is because the distributed environment of today is more complex with numerous uncertainties and chances of failure at all levels. Therefore, selection of reliable service poses a serious challenge. To combat this problem, over the years, huge number of reliability researches has been reported in literature. These researches have been categorized and analysed in many survey and review studies. However, most of these studies focus on the architecture-based reliability mechanisms and pay little attention to the advances in the popular probabilistic reliability prediction methods which are based on quantitative reliability measurements. These methods which are sometimes called ‘black box’ techniques are of great importance to both service designers and service clients such as brokers and other proprietary schedulers, for evaluating reliability of services or service components. Therefore, in this study the previous survey and review studies are extended by analyzing these methods and their recently proposed variants. In the end the study reveal some of the current issues that need further research.
 
 
 
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