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Articles by Shalom Nwodo Chinedu
Total Records ( 6 ) for Shalom Nwodo Chinedu
  Shalom Nwodo Chinedu , Opeyemi Christianah Emiloju , Franklyn Nonso Iheagwam , Solomon Oladapo Rotimi and Jacob Olagbenro Popoola
  Background and Objective: Thaumatococcus daniellii (T. daniellii ) and Megaphrynium macrostachyum (M. macrostachyum) are perennial, understorey herbs with similar morphological and vegetative properties. Genetic relatedness and variation among and within ecotypes of the plant species in Nigeria were studied using random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) markers. Materials and Methods: Plant samples were collected at random from 24 sites across 5 states in Southwest Nigeria. The DNA was extracted from the leaves by cetyl trimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) method and amplified with respective PCR-based primers. Genetic variation within and between the populations was determined by analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA), cluster analysis was performed using unweighted pair group method using arithmetic averages (UPGMA). Results: The RAPD and ISSR markers generated clear reproducible bands, polymorphic bands (PPD) produced by RAPD and ISSR markers were 86.7 and 91.3%, respectively. Genetic variation among the two plant populations was 93.68 and 77.87%, respectively with RAPD and ISSR markers, variation within each plant population was 6.32 and 22.13%, respectively for the RAPD and ISSR primers. The cluster analysis indicated that genetic differentiation occurred more among the population than within population of T. daniellii and M. macrostachyum. Conclusion: This study showed that T. daniellii and M. macrostachyum species are genetically distinct from each other. However, the genetic variation within each of the two species is low, thus, management and conservative approaches are required to preserve and develop the plants for future commercial exploitation.
  Shalom Nwodo Chinedu , Omolola Peace Dayo-Odukoya and Franklyn Nonso Iheagwam
  Background and Objective: Polygalacturonase [Poly (1, 4-α-D-galacturonide) glucanohydrolase, E.C] is a subclass of pectinase that hydrolyzes the glycosidic linkages between galacturonic acid residues in polygalacturonans. Solanum macrocarpum ripening prompts pectinase production. The objective of this study was to examine the kinetic properties of polygalacturonase from Solanum macrocarpum L. fruit. Methodology: The enzyme was partially purified by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration. Protein content, polygalacturonase activity and kinetic parameters were determined. Results: The protein content and polygalacturonase activity of the fruit juice extracts were 0.63±0.02 mg mL–1 and 45.96±6.31 U mg–1 protein, respectively. A 1.7 and 108.3 fold increase in enzyme activity was achieved by ammonium sulphate precipitation and gel filtration, respectively. The enzyme had a Vmax of 76.92 unit mg–1 protein and Km of 0.92 mg mL–1. The pH profile of the enzyme showed three activity peaks at 3.0, 5.5 and 7.0. The enzyme was most active at pH 3.0 and showed optimal activity at 30°C. Rapid release of product was observed within the first 20 min of enzyme incubation. The Zn2+, Ca2+, Mn2+, Pb2+, Fe2+, Cu2+ and EDTA exhibited inhibitory effect on polygalacturonase activity whereas Mg2+ had stimulatory effect on the enzyme. Conclusion: It was concluded that the fruit of Solanum macrocarpum is a rich source of polygalacturonase. The enzyme is favourably comparable with that of a fungi source and could be further exploited for commercial production of the enzyme.
  Shalom Nwodo Chinedu , Dominic E. Azuh , Victor Chukwudi Osamor , Emeka E.J. Iweala , Israel S. Afolabi , Chidi C. Uhuegbu , Olubanke O. Ogunlana and Solomon U. Oranusi
  The knowledge of chemical composition of skincare products will go a long way in reducing the hazardous effects often associated with their use. This study sought to determine the association between educational levels and knowledge of the chemical composition of skincare products and also their impact on the health and general wellbeing of users in sub-Saharan Africa. In addition, it was intended to stimulate interest on development of products suitable for the African skin. Questionnaires were randomly administered and summary tables created for the pre-processed data to which descriptive statistics was applied. The strength of associations was evaluated using Karl Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results indicated a weak positive correlation between the level of education and knowledge of the chemical composition of skincare products. It also revealed an over-reliance of respondents on foreign skincare products for beauty enhancement. Respondents previously harmed by specific products or who are uncomfortable with some of their effects opted for a change of brand and were willing to participate in a new product survey. The end-users generally desired products with germicidal effects and ability to impact smooth, healthy skin devoid of skin reactions. The study also showed that referral by other users, as opposed to radio, TV or internet advertorials, is the fastest way to introduce a brand to a new user. The findings emphasize the need for enlightenment at all levels and for manufacturers to produce quality skincare products with desirable health attributes.
  Shalom Nwodo Chinedu , Franklyn Nonso Iheagwam , Chisom Juliet Anichebem , Gbemisola Beatrice Ogunnaike and Opeyemi Christianah Emiloju
  Background and Objective: Despite numerous reports of medicinal uses of Thaumatococcus daniellii (T. daniellii) plant, there remains a dearth of information on the in vivo effect of the seed. In this study, the antioxidant and biochemical effects of T. daniellii seeds in the liver and kidney of male wister rats were assessed. Materials and Methods: Seeds were macerated with ethanol and filtrate was concentrated to yield an ethanolic crude extract. Rats were orally dosed with vitamin C, 500, 1000 and 1500 mg kg–1 of the extracts for 14 days. Antioxidant and biochemical parameters were evaluated. Liver histology was examined. Data were subjected to one-way analysis of variance and expressed as Mean±SEM. Results: It was observed that T. daniellii seed reduced the amount of total body weight gain but did not have any effect on organ weight (p<0.05). Treatment also resulted in significant (p<0.05) increase in hepatic SOD and GSH. It was only at the highest dose that renal GSH increased significantly (p<0.05). These antioxidant effects were associated with maintaining bilirubin concentration and reducing AST activity in the liver (p<0.05). Histopathological observations were in correlation with the biochemical results showing that there was no pathologic abnormality. Conclusion: The results of this study indicate that T. daniellii seed is a source of natural antioxidant and may be exploited for the treatment of kidney and liver diseases.
  Shalom Nwodo Chinedu , Okwuchukwu K. Eboji and Opeyemi C. Emiloju
  The objective of this study was to determine the pattern of weight abnormality in school children and adolescents in Ota, Nigeria. A total of 926 subjects (male: 357; female: 569) aged 2-19 years, randomly selected from schools in Ota, Nigeria, participated in the study. The subjects were divided into five age groups: early childhood (2-5 years), middle childhood (6-9 years), late childhood (10-12 years), early adolescence (13-16 years) and late adolescence (17-19 years). Body mass indices (BMI) were calculated as ‘weight(kg)/height(m)2’; body weights were defined using CDC age- and sex-specific BMI cut-offs. Weights and heights of subjects increased proportionately with age, indicative of a progressive growth pattern. Abnormal body weights occurred in 22.4% of the subjects (underweight, 9.0%; overweight, 9.1%; obesity, 4.3%). Weight abnormality reduced as the age of subjects increased; it was 43.8, 31.1, 20.0, 19.5 and 17.7%, respectively for early childhood, middle childhood, late childhood, early adolescence and late adolescence. Underweight occurred most in early childhood while overweight and obesity peaked at middle childhood. Weight deficiency was higher in males (10.4%) than females (7.9%) whereas weight excess was 12.6% in males and 13.9% in females. The study showed that weight deficiency and weight excess co-exist in School children and adolescents in Ota, Nigeria. Whereas weight deficiency due to under-nutrition prevailed in early childhood, weight excess resulting from over-nutrition was more prevalent in the older children and adolescents.
  Shalom Nwodo Chinedu , Adetayo Y. Oluwadamisi , Samuel T. Popoola , Bolaji J. David and Tamunotonyesia Epelle
  Thaumatococcus daniellii is an economic plant with versatile uses in Southern Nigeria. The arils attached to the seeds contain thaumatin, a non-sugar sweetener and taste modifier. This study examined the chemical constituents of the leaf, fruit and seed of T. daniellii. The fresh fruit, on weight basis, consists of 4.8% aril, 22.8% seed and 72.4% fleshy part. The leaf contained (per 100 g): 10.67 g moisture, 8.95 g ash, 17.21 g fat, 21.06 g protein, 24.61 g crude fiber 17.50 g carbohydrate, 0.10 g calcium, 0.08 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.37 g phosphorus. The fruit (fleshy part) contained 10.04 g moisture, 21.08 g ash, 0.93 g fat, 11.53 g protein, 18.43 g crude fiber, 37.27 g carbohydrate, 0.34 g calcium, 0.30 g magnesium, 0.01 g iron and 0.21 g phosphorus. The seed contained 15.15 g moisture, 11.30 g ash, 0.21 g fat, 10.36 g protein, 20.52 g crude fiber and 42.46 g carbohydrate. Terpenoids, flavonoids, alkaloids and cardiac glycosoides were significantly present in both the leaf and fruit whereas phlobatanin, saponin, steroids, anthraquinones and ascorbic acid were absent. Tannin was present only in the leaf. The leaf and fruit of T. daniellii have significant nutritional and medicinal benefits. The leaf is rich in protein and fat. The fruit is a good source of minerals, particularly, calcium and magnesium; the leaf is also rich in phosphorus.
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