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Articles by Shakeel Ahmad
Total Records ( 6 ) for Shakeel Ahmad
  Muhammad Tariq , Gowher Ali , Fazal Hadi , Shakeel Ahmad , Nasir Ali and Aftab Ali Shah

The objective of the present study was to develop an effective protocol for optimum callus induction and complete plant regeneration for four varieties of rice (Oryza sativa L.) i.e., Super Basmati, Basmati-370, Basmati-371 and Fakhre Malakand. Calli were induced from mature seed scutelum. The Murashige and Skoog (MS) and Chu`s N6 media containing hormone 2, 4-D (2, 4-Dichlorophenoxy acetic acid) in different concentrations were used for callus induction. Fakhre Malakand produced maximum calli on N6 media containing 3 mg L-1 2,4-D. while other three varieties showed maximum callus induction on N6 media containing 2.5 mg L-1 2,4-D. N6 media was found better than MS media for callus induction. For complete plant regeneration the calli of two varieties i.e., Basmati-370 and Basmati-371 were plated on N6 media containing different concentrations of NAA (1-Naphthalene acetic acid) and BAP (6-benzyl aminopurine). The maximum regeneration frequency (%) was observed on N6 media containing NAA 1 mg L-1 and BAP 2.5 mg L-1. It took 27-30 days for the callus to regenerate into a complete plant. Basmati-370 produced 4-7 plantlets per callus whereas Basmati-371 produced 4-8 plantlets per callus with regeneration frequencies of 61 and 69%, respectively.

  Shakeel Ahmad , Mahboob Akhtar , Amer Sohail Bhatti and Tariq Mahmood
  Effect of different tillage intensities in combination with herbicide application or interculture on growth and yield of maize was investigated at Student Farm, Department of Agronomy University of Agriculture, Faisalabad during 1997. Maximum grain yield (4.92 t h–1) along with highest net benefit (Rs. 38660/=) per hectare was obtained for the crop raised with tilling the soil twice followed by herbicide application against the lowest grain yield (2.72 t ha–1) and net benefit (Rs. 20890/ =) per hectare for the crop grown at zero tillage followed by interculture.
  Shakeel Ahmad and Zahid Hussain
  A total of 120 soil samples were collected from eight different crops. Nematodes were recorded from 18 (15%) samples through Galleria mellonella baiting technique. The soil samples were analyzed to see the effect of soil pH and soil texture on the persistence of EPNs. Maximum nematodes (38%) were recovered from the soil with pH 7, sandy loam soil texture followed by loamy soils. EPNs were found maximum in the samples taken from the root base of maize and grasses. Nematodes were also recovered from the soil of cauliflower and orange orchard. The nematodes were identified as Steinernema sp. and Heterorhabditis indicus.
  Muhammad Maqsood , Shakeel Ahmad , Aamir Ahmad and M. Irshad
  The present study was undertaken to determine a suitable growth stage of maize crop for the application of nitrogen fertilizer for maximising yield and yield components of maize under agro-climatic conditions of Faisalabad. Maximum grain yield (5.27 t ha–1) alongwith highest harvest index (37.00%) per hectare was obtained for the crop raised by split N fertilization i.e. 1/3 at sowing + 1/3 at lst irrigation + 1/3 at flowering and lowest grain yield (2.93 t ha–1) and harvest index (23.50%) in control.
  Shakeel Ahmad , Ahsan- ul-Haq , Muhammad Yousaf and Haq Nawaz
  Two hundred and forty White Leghorn laying hens at 48th week of age were randomly divided into 24 experimental units. These experimental units were allotted to eight treatment groups which were fed diets with 0, 2, 3 and 4% canola oil with 3000 or 10000 IU vitamin A/kg of diet (4 x 2 factorial design), for a period of 12 weeks in order to observe the effects of feeding canola oil and vitamin A on the fatty acid profile of egg yolks. Two eggs per replicate were collected at the end of trial and analyzed for fatty acid contents of egg yolks. The increase in dietary canola oil levels increased (p<0.001) both n-6 and n-3 Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (PUFA) but the increase in n-3 PUFA was more pronounced. The n-6/n-3 ratio decreased with the increase in dietary canola oil levels. However, the increase in dietary vitamin A level did not influence (p>0.05) the egg yolk fatty acid composition.
  Shakeel Ahmad , Murad Ali Khan , Sultan Ayaz and Ijaz Ahamd
  Background: The most commonly used plant namely Onosma khyberianum was brought under antimicrobial study after observing their medicinal values. The present study aim to assess antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extracts and subsequent solvent soluble fractions of Onosma khyberianum against five bacterial strains Salmonella typhi, Shigella dysenteriae, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae and three fungal strains Aspergilus flavus, Alternaria alternate and Fusarium oxysporum. Materials and Methods: Briefly the stock solution of crude extract and other fractions were prepared in DMSO (3 mg mL-1 for antibacterial essay, 4 mg 1 mL-1 for antifungal essay). The antibacterial activity was evaluated by agar diffusion method while for antifungal assay the disc diffusion method was used. Results: The ethanolic and chloroform fractions showed excellent activity against all the selected bacterial strains. The same fractions also showed best activity against all selected fungal strains. Conclusion: The present study suggests Onosma khyberianum to be a source for isolation of antimicrobial compounds for human health care and use as preservatives in food processing industries.
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