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Articles by Shaharin A. Sulaiman
Total Records ( 8 ) for Shaharin A. Sulaiman
  Ftwi Yohaness Hagos , A. Rashid A. Aziz and Shaharin A. Sulaiman
  Syngas is considered to be a viable alternative fuel to fossil derived fuels in both gas turbines and reciprocating gas engines. Detail studies of syngas as a dual fuel in compression ignited engine, diesel as a pilot fuel and as a single fuel in a naturally aspirated spark ignited engines are found in the literature. Even though the prospect of fuelling naturally aspirated spark ignition engine with syngas is very promising and even cost competitive with that of natural gas, it is associated with power de-rating that is mainly provoked by the decrease in volumetric efficiency. With the advancement in gasification technology and stern regulation with both fossil derived fuels and solid bio-energies, detail investigation of syngas’s combustion parameters and their effect in an internal combustion engine is very important. This study presents the combustion features like calorific value, laminar flame velocity and flammability limits of syngas in detail and their effects on the combustion in an internal combustion engine, spark ignition engine in particular. The study shows that understanding of the combustion characteristics of syngas is very important to investigate the effect of diluting inert gases on the overall performance and emission. The fact that the proportion of the constituent gases of syngas produced from gasification varied with variation of input parameters, there is limitation in the characterization of both laminar flame speed and flammability limit.
  Shaharin A. Sulaiman , Muhammad F. Karim , M. Nazmi , Z. Moni and Samson M. Atnaw
  In this study, the characteristics of synthetic gases derived from different plant-based biomass feedstocks are studied using a downdraft gasifier. The biomass materials are oil palm frond, mangrove wood, sugarcane bagasse and coconut husk. Understanding of these characteristics would lead to proper judgment on the suitability of co-gasification of the different biomass materials. The temperature profiles in the gasifier are recorded and the syngas compositions are estimated. It is found that the mangrove wood has the highest energy content (22,292 J g-1) at 11% moisture content (wet basis). It is also observed that mangrove wood has nearly similar properties to that of oil palm fronds as compared to sugarcane bagasse and coconut husks.
  Shaharin A. Sulaiman and Mohd Hafizudin Daud
  The study of sprays of liquid fuels such as diesel can be hazardous and costly. However, by replacing the liquid fuel spray with non flammable liquids such as water can reduce these problems. In this study, the similarity between water and diesel in terms of spray characteristics is studied. The study focuses on the characteristic of droplet size of the sprays by using Phase Doppler Anemometer (PDA) using a spray nozzle with pressure of 50, 100 and 150 kPa. From the results, it is found that the droplet sizes of water and diesel are quite similar and thus water spray has the potential to replace diesel spray in non-combusting research studies.
  Ramzy E. Konda , Shaharin A. Sulaiman and Bambang Ariwahjoedi
  The huge amount of wasted Oil Palm Fronds (OPF) produced annually provides a very good opportunity for the oil palm industry in Malaysia to use it for power generation, especially in mill boilers. Recently, gasification technology is receiving more attention as it can be used to convert wasted biomass into gaseous fuel for power generation and thermal applications as well as it can be used as a fuel source for the production of other chemicals. This study addresses the design, fabrication and performance evaluation of an updraft fixed-bed-gasifier. A 50 kW updraft gasifier is designed and fabricated for gasification of Malaysian oil palm fronds. The gasifier is designed using the empirical data from literature and derived quantities. The gasifier was modified to be very flexible allowing the gasification air to be fed through several locations. The air gasification results of OPF showed volumetric percentage of 22.61-23.36% of CO, 6.48-6.68% of H2, 1.2-1.5% of CH4, 9.51-9.65% of CO2 and 59.20-58.1% of N2. The heating value of the product gas mixture varied between 4.1-4.4 MJ Nm-3 while the cold gas efficiency, carbon conversion efficiency and specific gasification rate of the gasifier was in the range of 57-59 and 95-97% and 103-109 kg m-2 h-1, respectively. The study has demonstrated that the oil palm frond waste is suitable for the designed and fabricated updraft gasifier and the produced gas from the gasification of OPF was successfully used in a domestic cooking stove.
  Shaharin A. Sulaiman , Siti Nurfadilah A. Mujor , S.Z. Huda S.T. Ariffin , Rawaida Muhammad and Nasruddin A. Manaf
  Large scale air conditioning applications are one of the major energy consumers in hot and humid countries like Malaysia. For building complexes such as those in a university, the cooling energy varies depending on the varying activities of students and staff. Some of these buildings are intentionally designed and built by architects for aesthetic values and those with building envelope that comprises large areas of glazing consequently face high energy cost of air-conditioning due to the high heat gain through solar radiation. Due to the present uncertainties in the cost and availability of local and global energy, along with the environmental problem related to global warming, studies on how to reduce cooling energy in highly glazed buildings are imperative. The objective of the present work is to study a few possible strategies to reduce energy consumption through the air conditioning systems in a highly glazed academic building. The strategies considered in the study are through forced reduction of air-conditioning load during lunch-time and during rain and also by switching off some of the lights during office hours. The study is conducted by computer simulation using EnergyPlus software which estimates the cooling energy of a building or areas. It is found in the study that the strategies for reduction of cooling energy have potentials and are practical for implementation in the buildings.
  Vinod Kumar Venkiteswaran , Goo Jia Jun , Chin Yee Sing , Shaharin A. Sulaiman and Vijay R. Raghavan
  In fluidized bed processes, bed pressure drop is crucial as it determines the pumping power required. However, the physical parameters that influence the bed pressure drop are yet to be fully established. The present work studies the effect of particle shape on bed pressure drop in a swirling fluidized bed. The three different shapes of particle used in the work are; cylindrical, spherical and ellipsoidal, with different bed weights (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 kg). Blades with overlap angle of 9° and blade inclination of 10° were used in this experiment. The results showed an increase in the bed pressure drop with an increase in bed weight for all three particles regardless of shape. Spherical shaped particles were seen to have the highest pressure drop compared to the others due to a smaller exposed surface area. When the data acquired in the work was plotted a hysteresis loop was observed which was due to the extra energy required for the rearrangement or unlocking of particle at incipient fluidization.
  M.N.Z. Moni and Shaharin A. Sulaiman
  The last years saw a sharp increment in the interest laid on the renewable and the alternative energy sector, mainly due to the depletion of fossil fuel throughout the world for industrial and commercial use. Malaysia is the second largest producer of palm oil, currently holding up to 4.5 million hectares of palm oil plantation in its land. Currently produced at more than 40 million tons a year, only a small portion of Oil Palm Frond (OPF) is used as domestic animals forage and as raw material in small-scale furniture industry, while the rest is left at the plantation floor to naturally decompose. This study introduces OPF as a solid biomass fuel for gasification to produce synthesis gas that can be utilized for heat and energy generation in a cleaner and more efficient manner than direct combustion. OPF was gasified in the downdraft gasifier at 700-1000°C reactor temperature with a controlled air supply of 180 to 200 L min-1. The effects of reactor temperature and operation time to the quality of syngas produced from OPF downdraft gasification were investigated. At a calorific value at around 18 MJ kg-1, OPF was found to produce synthesis gas that sustainably burnt in air with a higher heating value of around 5 MJ Nm-3. OPF was found to be optimally producing syngas with desired energy content at a reactor temperature range of 700-900°C and within the first 45 min of gasifier operation.
  M. Amin A. Majid , Shaharin A. Sulaiman , Hamdan Mokhtar and A.L. Tamiru
  As part of a tri-generation plant, an absorption process provides the means to recover the energy that otherwise would be lost to the environment. Since the overall efficiency relies on the amount of energy recovered in all subsystems, knowing the current performance of the absorption process is vital to proper management of the resources. This study proposes the use of data clustering technique to estimate the most frequent operating point experienced by the absorption system in a given year. The same technique is applied to identify operating point trajectory of the system over nine years. In order to demonstrate applicability of the proposed approach, an absorption system that is comprised of two 12 ton h-1 heat recovery steam generators and two 1250 RT double-effect LiBr-H2O steam absorption chillers is considered as a case study. It was observed that data clustering technique is an effective method in establishing the relationships between the supplied heat and the amount of energy recovered by each subsystem. The heat recovery steam generators were identified as operating at part load ratio of about 0.41. The clustering method clearly revealed that both chillers deteriorated in performance. The absorption systems were mostly run at part load ratio of about 0.8. As such, at this operating point the energy demand was by 43% higher than that required for a healthy system. The proposed technique is applicable for performance monitoring, optimization and multi-state reliability studies of the absorption system.
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