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Articles by Sghaier Najari
Total Records ( 8 ) for Sghaier Najari
  Sghaier Najari , Amor Gaddour and Mouldi Abdennebi
  Data carried out from 10 local goat herds’ survey was analyzed to establish the impact of the management mode upon local goat performances in the aim to identify the possibilities to improve goat milk and meat production via the flock management handling. A total of 8257 kids’ weights and 3461 dairy performances were elaborated and statistically analyzed meaning a comparison of the performances registered on pastoral breeding toward those realized in oases under intensive feeding modes. On rangelands in extensive husbandry, the local population registered low performances similar to those known for indigenous caprine breeds of marginal zones. The average kid's weight was 5.1 kg at 1 month age and the average daily milk was reduced to 0.7 kg day-1. Oasian intensive conditions improve the kids’ growth performance both on weights average and their respective variation magnitude. The kid's birth weight increased with about 21% but the oasien kids’ superiority seems progressively elapsed with the age to be only 2% at 4 months age. However, lactation performances remain low and similar even though under intensive feeding mode and indigenous goat seems genetically unable to produce more milk under favourable conditions. Thus, the genetic evolution promoted growth performances as a biological priority to produce caprine meat which remains the principal herd output. Whereas, dairy performances needing high nutritive requirements was seriously reduced by the natural selective process.
  Amor Gaddour and Sghaier Najari
  To identify some genetic specificities of goat meat production in southern Tunisia, 16 years data monitoring of 1687 kids’ growth were analysed. Data distribution was studied to establish the performances regrouping pattern toward oasian breeding conditions depending on the kid’s age. The average kid’s weight was 3.11 and 13.14 kg, respectively at birth and at 90 days age. The standard deviation of those phenotypic varied largely between 0.78 and 3.25 kg, respectively at birth and at 3 months age. Thus, caprine data variation changes in relation to the phenotype. Environmental harsh conditions prevent the complete expression of the better animal genotypes.
  Amor Gaddour , Sghaier Najari and Mouldi Abdennebi
  Up until now, the composition of goat’s milk has not been well known. However, every day it is more and more evident that this milk is quite different from cows and other mammal’s milk. This difference depends on a major concentration in some of milk elements. Caseins, in goat’s milk are found in a minor concentration (their inner components have besides, different relative proportions). All these goat’s milk qualities result in a different physicochemical composition which explains some of its characteristics and its very particular technological behaviour. They prevent also the associating goat’s milk to cow’s milk as it has been done until recently. The objective of this study is to determine the physicochemical composition quality of goat milk for its turn in flavored cheese. Indeed, goat’s milk is a food interesting nutritional and dietary values.
  Amor Gaddour , Sghaier Najari and Mouldi Abdennebi
  The objective of this study is to determine the physicochemical composition quality of goat milk for its turn in flavored yogurt. Indeed, goat’s milk is a food interesting nutritional and dietary values. This study shows that the pH of goat milk is similar to that of cow’s milk, they are average respectively 6.70 and 6.75, therefore, they have different acidity 19.05°D to goat milk and 17°D to cow’s milk. The latter is less dense 1,031 than goat milk 1.029 Cp. For the viscosity, 3.1 for the cow and 3.63 for the goat. On the ash content, there is a higher average in the cow (8.27 g L-1) than in goats (7.8 g L-1). For the yogurt, manufacture of four types of yogurt (goat yogurt, goat yogurt flavored with strawberry yogurt and cow with the aroma and flavor without (control)) then the assessment of the physical characteristics and sensory, shows that the aromatization yogurt by the strawberry retain the physical status. On the other hand, monitoring of yoghurt analyzed after a few days of its manufacture and storage at 4°C, shows that there is an increase in contaminant flora which can be concluded that the expiry date not >7 days. In addition, the study shows that sensory-flavored is most appreciated by the consumer.
  Amor Gaddour , Sghaier Najari , Mouldi Abdennebi and Mabrouk Ouni
  In order to improve goat productivity in the arid regions of Tunisia, a crossing scheme of the local goat population by high performance breeds was applied under oases conditions. To cross local population, Alpine, Damascus and Murciana Granadina breeds were imported and used as paternal genotypes in several cross generation. The survey of pure breeds and crossed genotypes permitted to collect the zootechnical performances during 16 years under an intensive breeding mode. The analysis of 644 fertility, prolificacy, fecundity, abortion and sterility and kid’s mortality ratio showed an important difference between the studied genotypes performances. The local goat prolificacy rate was 153% in average. The kid’s mortality ratio was the highest for Alpine breed and its crossed genotypes with a ratio of 4 and 3%, respectively. The first and the second generations, the crossed Damascus x Local had a fertility of 98 and 100%, showing an important heterosis effect. Also, the reproductive performances of the imported breeds were largely lower than those of the local population. Kid’s mortality and reproductive performances are largely related to the genotype adaptative potentialities.
  Amor Gaddour , Sghaier Najari and Mabrouk Ouni
  A data issued from 16 years performances schedule of local goat, Alpine, Damascus, Murciana and crossed groups was used to study the genotypes productive behaviour under Tunisian oases conditions. The aim is to evaluate the possibilities of local goat productivity improvement by cross breeding in intensive mode and also, to choose the better improving breed and the propice crossing level. So, data of periodic individual weighing was used to estimates kid’s weight at some standard ages and dairy performances such as, daily milk average, total production by lactation and milking period of studied genetic goats groups. Statistical analysis of about 1928 kid’s weights and 1923 individual goat milking shows that, the cross breeding allows to improve the growth performances since the first generation with respect to local population production. ANOVA test shows an important effect of genotypes and environment upon kid’s weights (p<0.01). The kid’s weight average at birth and at 120 days age was about 3.49 and 15.78 kg, respectively. The cross breeding second generation allows the better improvement of local goat potentialities kid’s weight at 120 days reaches 16.19 kg for Damascus x local genotype. The dairy production with this generation is, about 248 kg for the Alpine one, of 181 kg for Damascus and 190 kg for Murciana, is only 137 kg by lactation for the local breed.
  Sghaier Najari , Amor Gaddour , Mouldi Abdennebi and Mabrouk Ouni
  About 5000 kid’s weights registered during four years in 9 herds raised in the Tunisian arid area were used in the aim to identify some genetic specificities of the local population productive behaviour towards harsh conditions. The analysis of kid’s growth under arid regions conditions shows a particular aspect of the genotypes expression in arid environment. The nature of the non-genetic factor effects on kid’s phenotypes distribution and parameters reveals a direct impact on the application of quantitative genetic methodologies for animal improvement. The expression of the "best" genetic potentialities seams to be limited by a maximum level defined by environmental factors. The normal distribution of kids performances is not verified, especially in dry years, where the right tail of the bell curve disappeared. The statistical importance of certain parameters such as the means and the variance is modified. The construction of the mixed model could, in this special case, induce a bias or increase the variance of the prediction error. These considerations impose a revision of hypotheses and methodologies of the quantitative genetics for the livestock improvement in arid regions.
  Sghaier Najari , Amor Gaddour and Mouldi Abdennebi
  To identify the impacts of some environmental factors upon kids’ weights at some standard ages, a data set carried out on 722 kids in growth during four years was analyzed. A Gompertz model was applied to estimate kids' weights at standard ages: birth day, 10, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150 and 180 days. A GLM procedure and a means comparison test (SNK, α = 0.05) were applied to identify the statistical effects of some factors and their homogenous classes at several ages. The determination coefficient R2 remains lower than 87% of all studied traits due to the observed data structure. All traits seem to be affected (p<0.001 or 0.05) by the factors related to the restrictions and the irregularities of the technical and natural environment of pastoral husbandry. The non-genetic factors impact increases with kids’ age and requirements. Growth traits varied depending to the natural and technical factors which illustrates the local population genetic response towards environmental resources in arid zone. The year and zone factors play an important role upon the kid’s weight and it evolution till 6 months age due to the large interannual variation of rainfall. Also the technical level of the herder seems affecting highly the kids performances. So, arid environment affects both quantitatively and qualitatively individual kid’s growing behaviour and have to be considered for local goat rational genetic improvement modelling and planning.
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