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Articles by Seweta Srivastava
Total Records ( 9 ) for Seweta Srivastava
  Ravindra Kumar , Seweta Srivastava , Manisha Srivastava and Asha Sinha
  In present study, the influences of different organic soil amendments on soil fungi was studied. Soil organisms carry a wide range of processor that are important for soil health and partially in both natural and managed agricultural scales. The total number of organisms, the diversity of species and activity of soil biota will fluctuate as soil environment changes. Three types of soil amendments and fertilizers viz., urea, FYM and vermicompost were used to amend the cultivated agricultural soil. The fungi were isolated from soil by using dilution plate technique and soil plate method. The dynamics of soil fungi were observed qualitatively as well as quantitatively. The maximum number of fungi was recorded when soil amended with FYM (40.6x104 g-1), urea (38.8x104 g-1) of dry soil at different concentration 2.0, 1.5 and 2.0%, respectively. In control where soil was not amended with any organic amendment, the number of fungi was 13.0x104 to 16.8x104 g-1, 14.4x104 to 16.8x104 g-1, 13.8x104 to 16.8x104 g-1 in urea, FYM and Vermicompost, respectively. A total 25 fungi were observed during the experimental period. Eighteen were observed when soil amended with urea, twenty-two observed when soil amended with FYM and 20 when soil amended with vermicompost. In control soil only fifteen fungi were recorded. The result showed that the number of fungi was increased in amended soil. Qualitatively, the fungi Rhizopus stolonifer, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Trichoderma harzianum, Penicillium citrinum, Alternaria alternata and Curvularia lunata, White Sterile Mycelium and Black Sterile Mycelium were observed.
  Pavithra G. , Sumant Bindal , Meenakshi Rana and Seweta Srivastava
  Endophytes are considered as plant mutualists which are living asymptomatically within plant tissues have been found in virtually all plant species. Endophytes receive nutrition and protection from the host plant while the host plant may benefit from enhanced competitive abilities and increased resistance to herbivores, pathogens and various abiotic stresses. This review focuses on the biology of endophytic fungi, their discovery, isolation, identification and diversity and their biological activities in environmental and agricultural sustainability. It also considers and their medicinal applications especially in the production of anticancer, antimicrobial, antioxidant and antiviral compounds. Endophytic fungi are one of the most creative groups of secondary metabolite producers that play important biological roles for human life. They are potential sources of novel natural agents for exploitation in the pharmaceutical industry, agriculture and in environmental applications. So, in this review we summarize their potential role against some important plant pathogens.
  Ravindra Kumar , Asha Sinha , Seweta Srivastava and Manisha Srivastava
  The aim of the present study was to determine the decomposition rate of Sesbania aculeata L. by CO2 evolution and to estimate Soluble Crude Protein (SCP) production by dominant decomposing mycoflora of Sesbania aculeata L. Eight dominant decomposing mycobiota were selected for the study. In the substrate induced respiration the significant difference was observed in both sterilized and unsterilized substrate with the test fungi. The maximum CO2 evolution was observed with Aspergillus niger in sterilized (16.04 μg day-1) and unsterilized green manure (18.92 μg day-1). In other experiment conducted for the estimation of soluble crude protein production Penicillium citrinum has produced maximum SCP (26.54%) at 25°C followed by Trichoderma harzianum, Aspergillus niger and Curvularia lunata whereas minimum soluble crude protein production was observed in Penicillium rubrum (8.46%) at 35°C. The maximum per cent biomass reduction observed by Aspergillus niger (28.60%) at 25°C and minimum was found in Penicillium rubrum (3.80%) at 35°C. Among seven different nitrogen sources tested against Penicillium citrinum, the highest producer of SCP, potassium nitrate was found to be the best for maximum SCP production (26.54%) whereas the least suitable nitrogen source for SCP production by Penicillium citrinum was recorded to be sodium nitrate (14.85%).
  Vinit Pratap Singh , Seweta Srivastava , Swapnil Kumar Shrivastava and H.B. Singh
  Trichoderma spp. are also known as effective bio-control agents against soil-borne pathogens of several important crops. Integration of chemicals and bio-control agents has been the subject of research during recent years. The potential value of bio-pesticides for the control of important plant pathogens requires investigation due to the general requirement for very low pesticide residues in foodstuffs and concerns over the increasing development of resistance to the different classes of chemicals. The aim of the present study was to check the compatibility of different insecticides viz., Decis (deltamethrin 2.8% EC), Ekalux EC 25 (quinalphos 25% EC), Fenval 20% EC (fenvalerate 20% EC), Hilcron 36 SL (monocrotophos 36 SL), Hildan 35 EC (endosulfan 35 EC), Hilmida (imidacloprid 17.8 SL), Marshal 25 E (carbosulfan 25% EC), Rogor 30% EC (dimethoate 30% EC), Rocket 44 EC (profenofos 40%+cypermethrin 4%) with V15 strain of Trichoderma harzianum Rifai. Mycelial growth of V15 strain of Trichoderma harzianum was calculated in the presence of above mentioned insecticides by using Potato Dextrose Broth (PDB) medium and SP3 medium separately. Hilmida (imidacloprid 17.8 SL) was found to be most compatible with V15 strain of Trichoderma harzianum in both the liquid media as it shows nil percentage reduction of mycelium. It was concluded that conclude that Decis (deltamethrin 2.8% EC), Hilcron 36 SL (monocrotophos 36 SL), Hilmida (imidacloprid 17.8 SL) and Rogor 30% EC (dimethoate 30% EC) are compatible insecticides with biocontrol agent (Trichoderma harzianum) while some insecticides viz., Ekalux EC 25 (Quinalphos 25% EC), marshal 25 E (carbosulfan 25% EC) and rocket 44 EC (profenofos 40%+cypermethrin 4%) inhibits the growth of Trichoderma spp.
  Seweta Srivastava , Ravindra Kumar and Asha Sinha
  Various parts of the Jatropha curcas plant are of medicinal value, its wood and fruit can be used for numerous purposes including fuel. In the present study the effectiveness of Jatropha curcas oil on inactivation of some mycoflora were determined. As a measure of testing the antimicrobial property of Jatropha curcas oil were subjected against six selected fungi viz. Alternaria alternata, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus niger, Fusarium chlamydosporum and Penicillium glabrum. Poisoned food technique was used to evaluate the antifungal effect of J. curcas oil. Two different concentrations of Jatropha oil i.e., 100 μL and 500 μL were mixed with potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium in Petri plates. Maximum radial growth was shown by control of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigatus and Aspergillus niger i.e., 90 mm (full growth on petri plate) followed by the control of Alternaria alternata i.e., 77.3 mm and minimum growth was shown by Penicillium glabrum i.e., 21 mm followed by Aspergillus niger i.e., 33 mm at 500 μL concentration of Jatropha oil. Maximum percent inhibition was shown by Penicillium glabrum i.e., 82.96% followed by Aspergillus niger i.e., 63.33% at 500 μL concentration of Jatropha oil and minimum percent inhibition was shown by Fusarium chlamydosporum i.e., 31.59% at 100 μL concentration of Jatropha oil. From this experiment it was concluded that Jatropha oil has promising antifungal effect on Penicillium glabrum and Aspergillus niger.
  Bharat Chandra Nath , J. P. Singh , Seweta Srivastava and R. B. Singh
  In vitro experiments were carried out with Phaeoisariopsis personata isolate to determine its sensitivity/tolerance to different fungicides viz., Tebuconazole (0.05%), Tebuconazole (0.10%), Tebuconazole (0.15%), Tebuconazole (0.20%), Tebuconazole (0.40%), Folicur (0.10%) and Mancozeb (0.30%) using poisoned food technique both in solid and liquid medium. In the solid medium method, visual observation was taken 20 days after inoculation of the pathogen. There was no significant difference among the different fungicides in their efficacy against P. personata, compared to control. In case of liquid medium the observations were taken after 25 days of inoculation and the results are presented. There was significant difference between the fungicides in per cent inhibition against the mycelial growth of the pathogen, P. personata. Among all the fungicides, Tebuconazole 0.4% (87.97%t) showed maximum inhibition followed by Tebuconazole 0.2% (85.24%) and Tebuconazole 0.15% (83.50%), among these Tebuconazole 0.15% was found to be optimum. Application of fungicidal sprays influenced the development of Cercospora leaf spot and reduced its intensity. Among these applications of different fungicides, Tebuconazole (0.15%) gave best result and reduced the disease intensity to 52.42%. Area under disease progress curve (AUDPC) greatly varied among different fungicidal treatments and showed significant difference in yield data. Impact of fungicides used for disease control was apparent on yield per plot. Tebuconazole (0.15%) gave best result and increased yield up to 67% as compared to 39% increase by Tebuconazole (0.10 %).
  Brajesh Kumar , Gopal Singh , Vinit Pratap Singh , Jaydeep Patil , Prashant Mishra , Debjani Choudhury and Seweta Srivastava
  Background and Objective: Due to the ability of Pleurotus species to convert crop residues into food protein, oyster mushrooms are least expensive commercial mushrooms and also easy to grow at various temperature ranges from 20-26°C with 75-85% relative humidity. With respect to these facts the present study was undertaken to assess the influence of different inorganic additives (0.075%) viz., salicylic acid, potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate, magnesium sulphate, zinc sulphate, potassium chloride, ferrous sulphate and copper sulphate on the yield of two Pleurotus species i.e., P. florida and P. flabellatus. Materials and Methods: The experiment was carried out by using seven inorganic additives in wheat straw for cultivation of Pleurotus species (P. florida and P. flabellatus). Observations were recorded and biological efficiency was calculated for cropping period, days for spawn run, days of pin head initiation, number of loab, number of fruiting body, average weight of fruiting body (g/FB) and yield (g kg–1 dry substrate). Results: Data revealed that 0.075% concentration of different inorganic additives was significantly increased the yield compared to control. Maximum yield (g kg–1 dry substrate) was observed in magnesium sulphate 695.00 g followed by potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate 660.00 g while minimum yield was found in zinc sulphate 505.00 g of P. florida. In case of P. flabellatus maximum yield observed in potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate was 665.00 g followed by magnesium sulphate 625.00 g while minimum yield was found in zinc sulphate 517.00 g. Conclusion: It was concluded from the above findings that the magnesium sulphate and potassium di-hydrogen orthophosphate were proved as potential inorganic additives followed by zinc sulphate causing significant increase in spawn run, cropping period and yield of the two test species of oyster mushroom viz., P. florida and P. flabellatus. These chemical additives were also very cost effective and having no residual effect on the quality and taste of mushroom.
  Jagraj Singh , Vipul kumar , Seweta Srivastava , Adesh Kumar and Vinit Partap Singh
  Background and Objectives: Wilt of tomato caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici (Sacc.) W., is one of the most economically important disease of tomato occurring world-wide. In the present study, the mycoparasitism inhibitory affects of three Trichoderma species (T. viride, T. harzianum and T. koningi) on the growth of the causal agent of tomato Fusarium wilt (Fusarium oxysporum f.sp. lycopersici) were investigated by dual culture under in vitro conditions. Materials and Methods: Already identified Trichoderma species viz. Trichoderma harzianum, Trichoderma viride and Trichoderma koningii were taken for the present experiment used to check their relative viability against Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycoperisci by dual culture techniques. All the isolates of Trichoderma were evaluated for the growth pattern on five different media along with different temperature and pH range. Results: Trichoderma harzianum inhibited maximum radial growth (75.7%) of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici pathogen during the experiment followed T. viride. During the same study all these Trichoderma isolates were evaluated on five different solid media for assessing growth and sporulation and the maximum radial growth of Trichoderma harzianum were found in Potato Dextrose agar whereas the lowest growth was observed in Trichoderma selective medium. Similarly, excellent growth of Trichoderma spp. was found at temperature range of 25±2°C, while 5.0-7.0 pH was found the most favourable for the growth and sporulation of Trichoderma spp. Conclusion: Out of all the three species of Trichoderma, the maximum inhibition of the test pathogen was furnished by Trichoderma harzianum. On the basis of present study the fungal bioagents, might be exploited for future plant disease management programs (DMP) to save environmental risk.
  Vipul Kumar , Vinit Pratap Singh , Brajesh Kumar , Seweta Srivastava and Bipen Kumar
  Background and Objective: Sugarcane (Saccharum spp.) is a commercially important cash crop of India utilized for the production of sucrose, ethanol, biofuel and fiber-related commodities. Amongst the foliar diseases, the pokkah boeng disease is becoming the major disease of sugarcane. In view of importance of this disease in sugarcane cultivation in India, a plan has been outlined for its study on different parameters of soil properties and their management by using some chemotherapeutants. Materials and Methods: Study on the different inoculation techniques on suitable host variety of sugarcane was done by inoculating with Fusarium moniliforme under suitable temperature (25-30°C), humidity (80-85%) and rainfall (300-400 mm.) under natural conditions. Sugarcane is grown on varieties of soil from sandy loam to heavy clay but is grown best on well drained sandy loam soil. Results: Data revealed that sandy clay loam soil and ph 6.5-7.5 exhibited highest incidence of disease among all type of soils. It was also observed that the percentage pokkah boeng incidence increased with the increase in moisture content of soil. In the soil temperature study, results revealed that 24-29°C temperature was favourable for disease development but maximum disease incidence was recorded at 27.5°C. Copper oxychloride was found more effective against pathogen out of all the chemical fungicides used during the experiment. Conclusion: Sandy clay loam exhibited highest incidence of disease and copper oxychloride was found more effective fungicide against Fusarium moniliforme.
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