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Articles by Sentayehu Alamerew
Total Records ( 12 ) for Sentayehu Alamerew
  Muez Mehari , Sentayehu Alamerew and Berhane Lakew
  Protein content is a prerequisite for malting quality and it is highly affected by environment. The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction and assess the protein content of malt barley genotypes in diversified locations. Eight malt barley genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design using three replications at six locations of Tigray, Ethiopia durining 2013/2014 main cropping season. The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction effect model (AMMI) analysis revealed significant differences (p<0.01) for genotype, location and genotype by location interaction for protein content. The magnitude of location was twice the magnitude of genotype. Hence, the malt barley genotypes had not a consistent rank across location. The AMMI model clearly indicated the presence of large magnitude of genotype by location interaction which can be partitioned into four significant interaction principal components. The malt barley genotypes were best explained by the AMMI2. Therefore, this model is vital for protein content study in the area. According to the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction effect biplot 1 analysis and ranking biplot f the GGE the genotypes Holkler and Bekoji were stable for desirable protein content for malting. The AMMI1 biplot indicated that locations Korem, Emba-hasti and Astella were unfavorable having protein content less than the grand mean. However, Hashange Mekhan and Hagara-Selam were favorable with protein content greater than the grand mean. In the malting industry protein content is not the only indicator and other quality requirements have to be incorporated for full packaged recommendation of the malt barley genotypes.
  Muez Mehari , Sentayehu Alamerew and Berhane Lakew
  Eight malt barley genotypes were evaluated in randomized complete block design using three replications at six locations in Tigray region during 2013/2014 main cropping season. The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitude of genotype by environment interaction and yield stability of malt barley genotypes. The additive main effect and multiplicative interaction effect model (AMMI) analysis revealed significant difference (p<0.01) for genotypes, locations and genotype by location interaction. The magnitude of the testing location was greater than the genotype by location interaction and the genotype. This indicates that the testing locations were diversified in discriminating the genotypes. The AMMI model clearly demonstrates the genotype by location interaction by partitioning into two significant interaction principal components that capture 83.84% of the genotype by location interaction. According to the stability analysis of the additive main effect and multiplicative interaction effect Stability Value (ASV) and the AMMI 1 biplot analysis the genotype Bekoji and Fire-Gebs were the most stable coupled with higher grain yield greater than the grand mean where as the genotypes Sabini and HB-1533 were unstable. Using the AMMI 1 biplot analysis, the testing locations, korem, Hashange, Mekhan and Emba-hasti were favorable testing locations whereas Hagara-Selam was unfavorable testing location.
  Olika Kitila , Sentayehu Alamerew , Taye Kufa and Weyessa Garedew
  To estimate the extent of genetic diversity among Limmu Coffee collection, Coffea arabica accessions from Limu (Jimma) were planted in simple lattice design with two replications. Clustering of the 49 accessions for 22 quantitative characters was performed using the method of average linkage clustering strategy of observations. Genetic divergence between clusters was determined using the generalized Mahalanobis D2 statistics Analysis of variance indicated the presence of significant (p<0.05) variability for most of quantitative traits. However, non significant variation was observed for stem diameter, canopy diameter, internode length of stem, average length of primary branch, internode length of primary branch, number of primary branch and percentage of bearing primary branches. Moreover, clustering analysis grouped the accessions in to four genetic divergent classes. The smallest inter cluster distance (D2 = 5.24) was observed between clusters I and III while the highest and highly significant inter cluster distance (D2 = 93.74) was between cluster III and cluster IV suggesting the coffee materials among clusters were divergent from each other. Furthermore, principal component analysis indicated that about 85.74% of the variation present among accessions was explained by ten principal components. Over all, the study confirmed the presence of trait diversity in Limu coffee accessions and this could be exploited in the genetic improvement of the crop through hybridization and selection.
  Momina Aragaw , Sentayehu Alamerew , Girma H/Michael and Abush Tesfaye
  Genetic variability study generates very relevant information on the possibility of genetic improvement of crops for yield and quality attributes. The study was objectively designed to assess the genetic variability of thirty six ginger (Z. officinale Rosc.) accessions. The experiment was laid out in a 6x6 simple lattice design with two replications during 2009-2010 main cropping seasons at two locations i.e., Tepi and Bahir Dar. Variances component method was used to estimate genetic variation, broad sense heritability and genetic advance. Number of plants per plot, fresh rhizome yield and dry rhizome yield showed high Genetic Coefficient of Variation (GCV) and Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) at both locations. Relatively high heritability and genetic advance was obtained for oleoresin content, volatile oil content, fiber content, fresh rhizome yield and dry rhizome yield. The D2 analysis showed the 36 genotypes grouped into 7 and 11 clusters at Tepi and Bahir Dar, respectively. This makes the genotypes to become highly divergent. The overall assessment showed that there is wide variability among ginger accessions in Ethiopia which has an important implication for breeding ginger for yield, morphological and quality attributes.
  Olika Kitila , Sentayehu Alamerew , Taye Kufa and Weyessa Garedew
  The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of genetic variation and association among yield and yield-related traits. Forty nine Coffea arabica accessions from Limu (Jimma, Ethiopia) were tested at Agaro Agricultural Research Sub Center, Ethiopia from 2004 to 2009 in simple lattice design with two replications. Variances component method was used to estimate genetic variation, broad sense heritability and genetic advance. Association of traits was also estimated using standard method. The germplasm accessions differ significantly for most of the traits. Relatively high phenotypic (45.11 and 30.18%) and genotypic coefficient of variation (25 and 24.90%) were observed for yield and number of secondary branches in the order of magnitude. Hundred bean weight (81.13%) showed the highest heritability. Yield per plant showed significant positive phenotypic correlation with percentage of bearing primary branches (r = 0.53) while it revealed significant positive genotypic correlation with bean width (r = 0.47), fruit length (r = 0.61), hundred bean weight (r = 0.59), plant height (r = 0.28), canopy diameter (r = 0.29), leaf length (r = 0.30) and percent of bearing primary branches (r = 0.62). Over all, the study confirmed the presence of trait diversity in Limu coffee accessions and this could be exploited in the genetic improvement of the crop through hybridization and selection.
  Awale Degewione , Sentayehu Alamerew and Getachew Tabor
  The aim of this study was to estimate the extent of genetic variability and character association among bulb yield and related traits. Forty nine shallot accessions from major shallot growing regions of were tested at Debre-Zeit Agricultural Research Center, Central Ethiopia from 2009 to 2010 in simple lattice design with two replications. Variances component method was used to estimate phenotypic and genotypic variation, heritability and genetic advance. Association of traits was also estimated using standard method. The accessions differed significantly for most of the characters and relatively wide range of the mean for most of characters indicated the existence of variation among the tested accessions. High Phenotypic Coefficient of Variation (PCV) and Genotypic Coefficient Variation (GCV) were recorded for leaf diameter and percentage of bulb sprouting. High GCV along with high heritability and genetic advance was obtained from leaf diameter and percentage of bulb sprouting. Bulb yield was positively and significantly associated with plant height, leaf length, leaf sheath length, leaf sheath diameter, bulb length, bulb diameter, bulb dry weight, biological yield per plant and marketable yield per plant at both phenotypic and genotypic levels. Genotypic path-coefficient analysis revealed that bulb dry weight exerted maximum positive direct effect on bulb yield and also exhibited positive association with bulb yield per plant, suggesting their possible utilization to improve bulb yield per plant. D2 analysis showed the 49 shallot accessions grouped into six clusters. This makes the accessions to become moderately divergent. Principal component analysis showed that the first six principal components explained about 76.15% of the total variation. Over all, the study confirmed the presence of character diversity in Ethiopian shallot accessions and this could be exploited in the genetic improvement of the crop through hybridization and simple selection.
  Olika Kitila , Sentayehu Alamerew , Taye Kufa and Weyessa Garedew
  The aim of this study was to characterized and to estimate the extent of genetic variation and character association of organoleptic quality attributes of Coffea arabica accessions from Limu (Jimma, Ethiopia). Forty nine coffee germplasm accessions which have little or no information about their genetic variability together with two checks were planted in the field at Agaro Agricultural Research Sub Center, Ethiopia from 2004 to 2009. Simple lattice design with two replications was used in this particular study. Variances component method was used to estimate genetic variation, heritability and genetic advance. Relationship among traits was also estimated using standard method. The germplasm accessions differ significantly for most of the traits. Analysis of variance, variance components, phenotypic and genotypic associations, cluster analysis and principal components were computed for the sensorial quality attributes studied. The results depicted significant variations among coffee accessions for cup quality attributes studied, except aromatic intensity, bitterness, astringency and body. There was high phenotypic coefficient of variation for astringency and bitterness. This is in contrast to the low phenotypic coefficients of variation recorded for aromatic intensity and body. In principal component analysis, the first three principal components with eigen values greater than one explained 81.4% of the total variation. The first two principal components accounted with percent variability of 52.87 and 17.77%, respectively explained 70.64% of the total variability among the coffee germplasm. These were grouped into three genetically divergent clusters and three uncorrelated principal components. In general, our findings show that more than half percent of the Limu accessions had similar quality attributes with the standard checks. The results also confirmed the presence of variability in most quality attributes among the Limu coffee accessions and this could be exploited in the future genetic improvements.
  Tilahun Wondimu , Sentayehu Alamerew , Amsalu Ayana and Weyessa Garedew
  Forty nine anchote landrace populations collected from South and Western parts of Ethiopia were evaluated for 17 pheno-morphic and agronomic traits of yield and yield related traits in simple lattice design at Bako Agricultural Research Center during 2011 cropping season. The objectives of the study were to classify the population into relatively homogenous group and to identify the major traits contributing to the overall diversity of the population. The data were subjected to D2 analysis and the populations were clustered in to 5 different major groups according to their similarity levels and this makes the accessions to become moderately divergent. This dataset was reduced to three significant Principal Components (PCs) that cumulatively explained 93.50% of the variance. About 56.30% of the variance accounted for by the first PC alone resulted largely from the variations in contrasting effects of discriminatory traits like fruit yield per plant, fruit length, fruit weight, fruit diameter, hundred seed weight, petiole length, number of fruit per plant, leaf length, average root length, internodes length, vine length and root yield per plant. Overall, the study confirmed the presence of character diversity in anchote landraces. This assessment of traits diversity can assist geneticist and breeders to identify populations with desirable characteristics for inclusion in variety breeding program. Further evaluation at multi-location is suggested in the future.
  Teshome Ashagrie , Derbew Belew , Sentayehu Alamerew and Yehenew Getachew
  A field experiment was conducted at Sirinka Agricultural Research centre Kobo sub center research field during the 2012/2013 under irrigation condition with the objective of assessing the effect of different planting time (October 25, November 5 and November 15) and mother bulb sizes (2-3, 3.1-4 and 4.1-5 cm) on onion seed yield and quality. The study was conducted by using 3x3 factorial design with three replications. Data was collected on growth, yield and quality parameters and analyzed using SAS version 9.2 statistical software. The results of the study showed significant interactions between mother bulb size and planting time on days to 50% flowering, scape diameter (cm), seed yield per plant (g), seed yield per hectare (kg) and germination index. The maximum seed yield (1155.73 kg ha-1) was obtained from large bulbs planted on October 25 while the least (75.15 kg ha-1) from small bulbs planted on November 15. In terms of germination index, the highest (6.03) was obtained from the large bulbs planted on October 25, whereas the lowest germination index (3.37) was from small bulbs planted on November 15. Early planting on October 25 increased germination percentage by 39% than the last planting 15 November. Regarding mother bulb size, large bulbs increased germination percentage by 13.32% than the small bulbs. Correlation coefficient indicated that umbel diameter, seed number per umbel, seed weight per umbel and seed yield per plant were found to have positively and highly significantly correlated with seed yield per hectare. Therefore, based on the findings of the current study, early planting (October 25) of large bulbs (4.1-5 cm) can be used for high yield and better quality of onion seeds. Considering the above mentioned results, it would be advisable to further investgated the seed production potential of different onion types at different locations over years so as to come up with best recommendation. In addition, plant spacing, fertilizer rate and storage methods of onion seed could also be considered. Furthermore, the seed quality performance of imported and locally produced onion seeds could be investigated to promote the onion seed industry.
  Mulugeta Seyoum , Sentayehu Alamerew and Kassahun Bantte
  Field experiments were conducted during the main rainy seasons of 2009 and 2010 at three rainfed upland locations of Southwest Ethiopia to evaluate and select high yielding NERICA genotypes. A total of fourteen rice genotypes consisting of 9 NERICA, 3 FOFIFA and 2 genotypes as check, laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications were used as treatments. The study revealed highly significant (p<0.01) difference between all genotypes with respect to yield and yield component traits studied in the three locations, except for panicles per plant at Shebe. NERICA4 and NERICA3 gave the highest mean grain yield at Shebe (6008.9 and 5866.7 kg ha-1) and Gomma-2 (4262.2 and 3915.6 kg ha-1). At Eladale, the local check (X-Jigna) was with the highest yielder (1080 kg ha-1). Among NERICA genotypes tested, 77% of them recorded 5-6 tons of grain yields per hectare at Shebe. Performance of all genotypes increased sharply with decrease in altitude from Eladale to Shebe and vice versa. Mean grain yield advantage of 20-23% was achieved by NERICA4 and NERICA3 over check genotypes at Shebe. The two NERICA varieties were recommended for rice producing farmers with an altitude range of below 1500 m a. s. l. to maximize grain yields in Southwest Ethiopia.
  Abeyot Tessema , Sentayehu Alamerew , Taye Kufa and Weyessa Garedew
  The study was carried out to determine the magnitude of genetic diversity among Coffea arabica germplasm accessions. For this, twenty-one native coffee germplasm collections of six geographical areas were used for the study. The coffee genotypes were field, established in 2002 at the Jimma Agricultural Research Center, southwestern using a randomized complete block design of three replications. Ripe red coffee cherries were handpicked and prepared for laboratory determinations on quality and biochemical attributes. Analysis of variance, clusters, principal component and divergence analyses were computed. The results indicated significant (p<0.01) variations for the most coffee quality and biochemical attributes due to coffee genotypes. Cluster analysis grouped the entries into 4 different clusters. The clusters also demonstrated maximum inter- and minimum intra-variances for all the quality attributes. Moreover, the distances among the clusters were highly significant, indicating the possible superiority of heterosis from the highly divergent parents. The analysis of principal component showed four PC1, PC2, PC3 and PC4 with the respective eigenvalue of 5.11, 1.92, 1.73 and 1.16, explaining 84.41% of the total variance. This underlines that coffee breeding strategy within and among geographical areas may provide quality improvement with known origin quality profile. It can be concluded that the promising coffee germplasm collections were diverse in terms of most quality traits and biochemical constituents due to genetic factors. Thus, selection of superior coffee cultivars requires careful evaluations and characterizations for quality attributes and other desirable traits under various field management and processing techniques across locations.
  Mulugeta Seyoum , Sentayehu Alamerew and Kassahun Bantte
  Field experiments were conducted using fourteen rice genotypes during the main rainy seasons of 2009 and 2010 at three rainfed upland locations of Southwest Ethiopia to estimate the genetic variability, heritability and correlation coefficients of grain yield and yield contributing traits in upland rice. The experiments were laid down in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Highly significant (p<0.01) variation was obtained for days to 50% flowering, days to 85% maturity, plant height, panicle length, spikelets per panicle and thousand grains weight. Significant difference (p<0.05) were noted for panicles per plant, grains per panicle, total spikelet fertility and grain yield. Days to 50% flowering, plant height, grains per panicle, spikelets per panicle, thousand grains weight and grain yield showed relatively high GCV and PCV estimates. High heritability was obtained for plant height (92.17%), followed by 50% flowering (90.16%), thousand grains weight (83.17%), days to 85% maturity (82.45%), panicle length (79.25%) and spikelet per panicle (60.25%) which indicates high heritable portion of variation. High to medium estimates of heritability and genetic advance were obtained for plant height, days to 50% flowering, panicles per plant, spikelets per panicle, grains per panicle and thousand grains weight, indicating the roles of additive gene action and a good scope of selection using their phenotypic performance. Grains per panicle had maximum positive direct effect and highly significant (r = 0.906**) genotypic correlation coefficient with grain yield. The present study revealed that for increasing rice yield in upland ecology, a genotype should possess more number of grains per panicles, tillers per plant and panicle per plant, high spikelet fertility and large panicle size.
 
 
 
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