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Articles by Saurabh Gupta
Total Records ( 10 ) for Saurabh Gupta
  Brajesh Singh , Mukta Jain , S.V. Singh , Kuldeep Dhama , G.K. Aseri , Neelam Jain , Manali Datta , Neeraj Kumar , Parul Yadav , Sujata Jayaraman , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey and Jagdip Singh Sohal
  Mycobacteria are dreadful human and animal pathogens causing range of mycobacterioses in different tissues. Due to their cell wall composition and their adaptability mycobacteria can survive in different habitats for years. Emergence of Multi-drug Resistant (MDR) and extensively drug resistant (XDR) strains has complicated the problem of mycobacterial disease control. Therefore new drugs should evolve to fight drug resistance. Medicinal plants may offer a new hope as source of bioactive molecules for developing alternative medicines for the mycobacterial diseases. Presently used anti-mycobacterial medicines produce serious side-effects and cannot be used in animals because of risk of entry into food chain. Plant derived medicines may help solving this problem and fighting the drug resistance. The present study reviews the literature available on anti- mycobacterial plants and their bioactive molecules with hope that this effort will expedite the research on development of a novel plant derived drugs against mycobacterial diseases.
  Tarun Kumar Sachan , Virendra Kumar , ShoorVir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Sujata Jayaraman , Mukesh Sikarwar , Sunil Dixit and Kuldeep Dhama
  Mycobacterial biofilm is a structured community of bacterial cells enclosed in a self-produced polymeric matrix and adherent to an inert or living surface, which constitutes a protected mode of growth that allows survival in hostile environment. Biofilms can be defined as communities of mycobacteria attached to a surface. It is clear that microorganisms undergo profound changes during their transition from planktonic (free-swimming) organisms to cells that are part of a complex, surface-attached community. These changes are reflected in the new phenotypic characteristics developed by biofilm mycobacteria and occur in response to a variety of environmental signals. The biofilm-forming microorganisms have been shown to elicit specific mechanisms for initial attachment to a surface, formation of micro colony leading to development of three-dimensional structure of mature biofilm. They differ from their free-living counterparts in their growth rate, composition and increased resistance to biocides, antibiotics and antibodies by virtue of up regulation and/or down regulation of approximately 40% of their genes. This makes them highly difficult to eradicate with therapeutic doses of antimicrobial agents. A greater understanding of mechanism of their formation and survival under sessile environments may help in devising control strategies.
  Lakshman Santra , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay K. Singh , Amit R. Sahu , Ravi Kumar Gandham , Soumen Naskar , S.K. Maity , Jyotirmoy Ghosh and Sujoy K. Dhara
  The conventional method of Bone Marrow Stromal Cell (BMSC) isolation from live subjects are complex due to involvement of lot of expert personnel and pre and post operational medication and cares. Moreover, the concerning ethical issues also pose lots of restrictions for isolation of BMSC’s making stem cells research restricted to certain elite laboratories only. This study aims to compare between the regular aspiration (invasive) method and an alternative, straight forward and non-invasive method of BMSC harvest. The BMSCs were harvested by both invasive and non-invasive methods and cultured in MSC (Mesenchymal Stem Cell) medium. The cells were undergone visual assessment of growth dynamics as well as identification and characterization of MSC cells, based on microscopic examination. Both of these tested methods successfully yielded significant amount of BMSC that were found to be identical in morphology, growth dynamics and in vitro cultural properties. Unlike the invasive method that requires a live animal, the non-invasive method relies on post-slaughtered bone and therefore obviates the requirement of skill personnel and setup. Eventually, the used bone from already dead animal no longer becomes the issue of conflict with animal ethics and welfare. The ease in cell harvest and lack of ethical barrier would definitely make BMSC harvest convenient and therefore, anticipated to be well accepted in resource poor laboratories around the globe.
  Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Sujata Jayaraman , Manju Singh , Bjorn John Stephan , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Anjali Pachoori , Kuldeep Dhama and Ashok Kumar Bhatia
  Cross reactivity of three antigens of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis with sera of sheep endemic for Johne’s disease was evaluated. Out of 40 sheep tested by fecal microscopy, 72.5% were shedding MAP. Using protoplasmic antigens (PPA) from three MAP strains isolated from different livestock species and geographical regions, 90, 77.5 and 2.5% sheep were positive in goat (Indigenous g-ELISA) and cattle (b-ELISA) based ELISA kits and ELISA kit for small ruminant (sr-ELISA), respectively. Only 2.5 and 10% sheep were positive and negative in all the four tests. Native species specific (goat origin novel ‘Indian Bison Type’ MAP) semi-purified whole cell PPA based ELISA (Indigenous g-ELISA) was superior in reacting with sera of native sheep than the commercial PPA of bovine origin (Allied Monitor Inc., USA) and commercial ELISA kit for small ruminants (ID Vet, France). Lower cross reactivity of antigens originated from US and France emphasized the need to develop tests based on local strain of MAP than strains from different livestock species and geographical regions. This is an important finding against the use of ‘Global kits’ without validating in local conditions. Study showed that kits developed from local strains of MAP were not only superior but also cost effective and will significantly contribute in programs for the control of JD in native sheep population.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Sachin Digambar Audarya , Manju Singh , Bjorn John Stephen , Daljeet Chhabra , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Saurabh Gupta , Sahzad , Anjali Pachoori , Sujata Jayaraman , Gajendra Kumar Aseri , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Ashok Kumar Bhatia and Kuldeep Dhama
  Johne’s disease is endemic in the domestic riverine buffalo population of the country and bio-load of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is increasing in the absence of indigenous diagnostic kits and control programs. A new ‘dot-ELISA kit’ has been developed and validated with indigenous plate ELISA for the screening of buffaloes against Johne’s disease. Out of 156 serum samples screened 41.0 (64), 85.8 (134) and 85.2% (133) were positive for MAP infection by indigenous plate ELISA kit condition (A), condition (B) and indigenous dot ELISA, respectively. Dot-ELISA kit detected 85.2 (133) and 90.3% (141) buffaloes as positive together with indigenous plate ELISA kit in condition A and B, respectively. Comparison of ‘Indigenous plate-ELISA’ with ‘Indigenous dot-ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between two tests. Study showed that ‘Indigenous dot-ELISA test’ has potential to be sensitive and cost effective ‘Field based herd screening test’ for the large scale screening of the domestic livestock population against Johne’s disease. The study also showed that despite high slaughter rate, incidence of Johne’s disease was high in native population of riverine buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) and call for immediate control of disease.
  Lakshman Santra , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay Kumar Singh , Manish Mahawar , Ravikumar Gandham and Sujoy K. Dhara
  The RNA interference is an established phenomenon of eukaryotic gene silencing. Recent advancement of genetic engineering allows employ this powerful tool for silencing multiple genes in several domestic animals and thus adds an additional dimension to animal welfare and livestock product improvement. This study reviews the current state of and prospects for the development of transgenic livestock using the mighty tool RNAi. The mini review accesses and summarizes information available in listed references. It starts with brief introduction to basis of RNA interference followed by outlining the current application of RNAi mediated transgenesis in livestock sector and identifies potential ways of developing and improving genetically modified livestock produces. This mini review explains importance of RNAi as a tool for improving animal produce. Here we present highlights of different recent studies that describe gene silencing by RNAi as an intervention tool for improvement of quality of various animal produces, acceleration of postnatal body growth, protection of livestock animals from certain fatal diseases etc. Diverse approaches are described to identify potential ways of developing genetically modified livestock. Further, this study emphasizes on recent advances in the field of gene targeting mentioning briefly on diverse molecular scissors and their potential involvement in executing conditional knock out or shRNA mediated knockdown strategies. Overall this mini review provides an update of the current status of harnessing RNAi for intended livestock produce and also points to the trend of future transgenic animal husbandry towards making the concept of ‘an animal for all purpose’ to come into reality.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Saket Bhushan , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Naveen Kumar , Hari Audh Tiwari , Vinay Chaturvedi , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Kuldeep Dhama and Zahra Hemati
  Background: Johne’s disease is chronic incurable enteritis mainly responsible for reduced productivity in domestic livestock leading to extensive economic losses to the dairy industry world-wide. Therapeutic efficacy of ‘First indigenous vaccine’ developed using novel ‘Indian bison type’ biotype of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) strain ‘S 5’ was evaluated for the treatment of clinical Johne’s disease in the farm herds of Jakhrana breed of goats. Farm herds of this important milch breed of semi-arid region of Rajasthan were endemically infected with Johne’s disease. Materials and Methods: Response to ‘Indigenous vaccine’ against Johne’s disease has been studied twice in this farm unit, first time in 2006-07 (Vaccine trail-I) and second time in the present study from 2013-14 (Vaccine trial-II). Data on improvement in health, clinical condition, productivity, reproductive performance, milk yield, survivability, morbidity, mortality, culling and shedding of MAP in feces were recorded before and after vaccination. In vaccine trial-II, 225 adult goats and 70 and 39 kids (above 3 months age) born to un-vaccinated and vaccinated goats were vaccinated one time between 2013 and 2014, respectively. Results: Reduction in shedding of MAP in this vaccine trial-II of infected goats and 1st generation kids was 45.5 and 100.0%, respectively. Presence of MAP in the blood of vaccinated goats was reduced by 23.0% at 360 DPV. Peak titers were achieved around 90 DPV and all vaccinated goats sero-converted by 360 DPV. High to very high morbidity, mortality and cullings encountered before vaccination in the infected Jakhrana goatherds were mainly due to Johne’s disease and were highly reduced after vaccination. Vaccination not only reduced clinical disease but also improved production performance (milk and meat production). Average gain in body weights were distinctly superior in the vaccinated goats and in the 1st generation kids born to vaccinated mothers. After vaccination there was overall improvement in the health of animals, kid survival rate, per animal productivity with respect to milk production and growth rates. Conclusion: Study concluded that ‘Indigenous JD vaccine’ developed using native MAP biotype can be employed both for the ‘Therapeutic management’ of the disease in the endemically infected goatherds and for the prevention of disease in naive and non-infected goats. The study can serve as model for the utilization of large population of non-productive domestic livestock and for the management and control of incurable Johne’s disease in endemically infected herds and flocks in the country.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Naveen Kumar , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Sarjeet Singh , Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty and Kuldeep Dhama
  Bovine Johne’s Disease (BJD) is a chronic granulomatous enteritis that affects ruminants worldwide and is having significant impact on the world economy and has been frequently reported from farm and farmer’s herds. An attack of Johne’s disease in a newly established cattle dairy farm consisting of high yielding Holstein Friesian (HF) cows in the Alwar district of Rajasthan was investigated for the first time in India. Since slaughter of cows is prohibited in India therefore management of bovine JD is critical for the success of dairy industry in the country and in this aspect the research paper is significant. Out of a total of 35 fecal samples screened by microscopy, 24 (68.5%) were positive for Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP). Screening of 26 serum and 23 milk samples by ‘Indigenous ELISA kit’ employing semi-purified antigen of native strain (‘S 5’) of MAP, 24 (92.3%) and 14 (60.8%) were positive, respectively. Sensitivity of ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ with reference to fecal microscopy and milk ELISA was 88.2 and 90.0%, respectively. Screening of blood samples of 14 cows, by specific PCR (IS900), 5 (35.7%) were positive. Genotyping of PCR positive HF crossbred cows using IS1311 PCR-REA showed presence of highly pathogenic ‘Indian Bison type’ genotype. Comparison of 3 tests (milk ELISA, fecal microscopy and IS900 PCR) with ‘Indigenous serum ELISA’ revealed substantial agreement between tests. Study also reported serious economic losses in terms of productivity (reduced quality and quantity of milk), reduced fertility and conception, decreased body weight and growth rate which left the farmer economy devastated due to attack of Johne’s disease in high yielding cattle herd of HF crossbred cows.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Naveen Kumar , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Ajay Vir Singh , Pravin Kumar Singh , Narottam Das Agrawal , Saurabh Gupta , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Avnish Kumar , Krishna Dutta Rawat , Rajib Deb and Kuldeep Dhama
  Bio-load of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis was estimated in the first mass screening of human population in Mathura region of South Uttar Pradesh. Of the 48,919 samples collected between December, 2010 and March, 2013 from Pathology laboratories, 26,390 were screened by indigenous ELISA kit, IS900 blood and stool PCR, IS1311 PCR_REA and stool microscopy. Of the 23,196 serum samples screened by indigenous ELISA, 34.0% were positive for MAP infection (Mathura-35.4% and Agra 14.2%). Percent prevalence of MAP infection was 28.3, 41.8, 37.4, 29.5, 41.1, 40.7, 42.5, 36.5 and 51.2 in patients suspected for diabetes, liver disorders, anaemia, thyroid disorder, tuberculosis, typhoid, abdominal disorders, inflammatory illness and ion imbalance, respectively. Of 3093 blood samples screened by IS900 PCR, 8.4% were positive (Mathura-9.2% and Agra-7.9%). Percent prevalence of MAP was 4.8, 7.0, 20.0, 4.9, 17.8, 7.6 and 12.7 in patients suspected for diabetic, liver disorder, skin disorders, anaemia, Malaria, typhoid and apparently normal individuals, respectively. Of the 101 stool samples screened by microscopy, 5.9% were positive and of these 2.9% were confirmed by IS900 PCR. IS1311 PCR_REA bio-typing showed ‘Indian Bison Type’ was the most prevalent biotype. Study indicated large scale exposure of human population to MAP infection in the Mathura region of South Uttar Pradesh and like in animals‘Indian Bison Type’ was the most prevalent biotype of MAP infecting human beings in this region.
  Shoor Vir Singh , Kuldeep Dhama , Kundan Kumar Chaubey , Naveen Kumar , Pravin Kumar Singh , Jagdip Singh Sohal , Saurabh Gupta , Ajay Vir Singh , Amit Kumar Verma , Ruchi Tiwari , Mahima , S. Chakraborty and Rajib Deb
  Johne’s disease or Paratuberculosis has emerged as major infectious disease of animals in general and domestic livestock in particular on global basis. There have been major initiatives in developed countries for the control of this incurable malady of animals and human beings alike (inflammatory bowel disease or Crohn’s disease). Disease has not received similar attention due to inherent complexities of disease, diagnosis and control, in resource poor counties around the world. However, the rich genetic diverstiy of the otherwise low productive animal population offers opportunity for the control of Johne’s disease and improve per animal productivity. Present review aims to gather and compile information available on genetics or resistance to Johne’s disease and its future exploitation by resource poor countries rich in animal diversity. This review will also help to create awareness and share knowledge and experience on prevalence and opportunities for control of Johne’s disease in the livestock population to boost per animal productivity among developing and poor countries of the world. Breeding of animals for disease resistance provides good, safe, effective and cheaper way of controlling Johne’s disease in animals, with especial reference to domestic livestock of developing and poor countries. Study will help to establish better understanding of the correlation between host cell factors and resistance to MAP infection which may have ultimately help in the control of Johne’s disease in future.
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