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Articles by Saroyo
Total Records ( 2 ) for Saroyo
  Vierta Ramlan Tallei , Saroyo and Trina Ekawati Tallei
  Background and Objective: Disturbance in Mt. Tumpa forest park, North Sulawesi has affected the diversity of its mammals species. This is caused by habitat degradation due to irresponsible land clearing and illegal loging which leads to forest habitat fragmentation. This threatens the survival of some Sulawesi’s endemic mammals which reside in the forest, such as Macaca nigra and Tarsius spectrum. In this present study, survey was conducted to analyse wild mammals diversity record in forest park, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Species richness, diversity and abundance of recorded mammals across the variety of habitat were estimated. This was done by establishing randomly selected transect lines across four types of habitat: primary and secondary rain forest, shrub, meadow and agricultural land. Species richness was the total number of the species in a community and measured using Margalef’s index (Dmg). Shannon-Wiener (H’) index was used to determine diversity of mammals. Eveness (E) of species distribution was calculated according to Krebs and supported by measurement of Lorenz curve using Excel 2013. Results: The data showed that there were a total of 621 individuals of mammals consist of eleven species and nine families recorded. The most abundant species was tarsier (Tarsius spectrum). The value of Shannon-Wiener index 1.48 indicates that the diversity, the spread of number of individuals in each species and community stability are moderate. While, the value of evenness below one ( 0.62) indicates that there is a dominant species in the community and the species distribution is uneven. In addition, the species richness in this area is moderate based on its value 1.71. Furthermore, the relatively low abundance (0.97) of macaque (Macaca nigra) indicates that the forest habitat has been degraded. Conclusion: The study reveals moderate diversity of wild mammals in Mt. Tumpa forest park. This information shows that hunting and deforestration in this area should be controlled for the sake of better conservation of the endemic and endangered faunal resource. The result of this study will contribute to the wild mammal conservation effort in this area, especially those of endemic species such as M. nigra and T. spectrum.
  Roni Koneri , Meis Jacinta Nangoy and Saroyo
  Background and Objective: Interaction of butterfly with plants is a form of mutualism. Plants need help in pollination and at the same time, butterflies need food in the form of nectar and pollen. This research aimed to observe and analyze relationships between butterflies with feed plants in Sangihe Islands, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. Materials and Methods: Observations were conducted from April-August, 2019 by observing the preference of butterflies for flowering plants, the proboscis length of butterflies, the length of corolla tubes, the volume and sugar content of nectar and environmental factors. Data analysis included the relationship between the proboscis length of butterflies and the length of corolla tubes and the relationship of nectar volume and sugar level of nectar with environmental factors. Results: The results showed that there were 23 families and 52 species of plants visited by butterflies. The plants were visited by butterflies of 5 families, which included 43 species and 179 individuals. The number of butterflies visiting flowering plants varied. Based on the time of visit, the highest frequency of butterfly visits to flowering plants was obtained in the morning. Then, the frequency began to decline during the day. Meanwhile, the highest volume and sugar content of nectar were found in the morning and tended to decrease during the day. Conclusion: Relationships of butterflies with flowering plants was influenced by plant habitus, types of inflorescence, flower color, shape of corolla tube, volume and sugar content of nectar.
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