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Articles by Saputera
Total Records ( 3 ) for Saputera
  Saputera , Muliansyah and Titin Apung Atikah
  The depletion of petroleum-fossil based fuel reserves results in an increase in fuel prices. One of the alternatives offered is through the use of biodiesel from C. tiglium oil seed feedstock. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the optimum process conditions producing the highest extract yield and quality biodiesel C. tiglium seed. The experimental design and the analysis of optimization results use the Central Composite Design and Response Surface Method. The extraction process of C. tiglium seeds using hexane solvent showed that the best maceration time is between 6.22 days, while the ratio of material/solvent 1: 5.18 g mL-1. Therefore, the result of extract yield is 30%. The oil product quality of C. tiglium seed is good for biodiesel raw materials based on the value of density, kinematic viscosity, total glycerin, iodine and saponification.
  Saputera , Djumali Mangunwidjaja , Sapta Raharja , Leonardus B.S. Kardono and Dyah Iswantini
  The result of phytochemical analysis showed that the hexane-soluble extract of seeds of C. tiglium contained fatty acids, terpenoids and alkaloids, while the ethanol-soluble extract of the seeds contained alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, terpenoids and saponins. Moisture and proximate analysis showed that the seeds contained fat up to 40,1%, protein 26%, carbohydrate 15.51 and other elements such as fiber, moisture and ash. Gas Chromatography (GC) analysis on hexane-soluble extract of the seeds, using available instrument and reference-standards in our laboratory, showed 17 peaks indicating that at least the fat contained 17 compounds. Part of the compounds, 8 of them were identified as fatty acids and the 9 were unknown. The highest fatty acid level was linoleic acid (43.67%), oleic acid (19.98%) and myristic acid (7.64%). The Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the hexane-soluble extract showed at least 32 compounds and the ethanol-soluble extract showed at least 25 compounds.
  Saputera , Djumali Mangunwidjaja , Sapta Raharja , Leonardus B.S. Kardono and Dyah Iswantini
  Identification and taxonomy analysis conducted at Herbarium Bogoriense at Research Centre for Biology, Indonesian Institute of Sciences Bogor. The name of the plant was C. tiglium L. The result of analysis on C. tiglium, ethanol extract as laxative material using the intestinal transit method showed treatment group that received dosage 0.06 mL/30 g b.wt. (72.5%) was significantly different compared to negative control (48.4%) or positive control (50.6%) which showed the weak effect as laxative at the dosage of 0.75 mL/30 g b.wt. It showed that ethanol extract of C. tiglium seed at dosage 0.06 mL/30 g is effective as laxative. The test result of the treatment using dosage 0.06, 0.04, 0.026 and 0.07 mL/28 g of body weight showed the mice population response 100, 60, 40 and 40% consecutively. The Thompson and Weil analysis result showed the ED50 was at 0.027 mL or equal to 639,5 g kg-1 b.wt. The LD50 was at 0.0707 equals with 1674,5 mg kg-1 b.wt. Safety limit is the range of dosage that cause the lethal effect and the dosage that gives the intended effect. The safety limit is represented by the comparison of LD50/ED50. Calculation result that the extract safety limit was LD50/ED50 = 0.0707/0.027 = 2.7.
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