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Articles by Sanjay Kumar
Total Records ( 3 ) for Sanjay Kumar
  Anurag Singh , Sanjay Kumar and H.K. Sharma
  The effect of incubation temperature (28.18-61.82°C), incubation time (97.5-652.5 min) and pectinase concentration (0.64-7.36 mg/25 g bael pulp) on juice yield, viscosity and clarity of juice were studied. A central composite rotatable design was used to optimize the conditions for enzymatic hydrolysis of bael to maximize juice yield and clarity and to minimize viscosity. Significant regression model describing the changes of juice yield, viscosity and clarity of juice with respect to hydrolysis parameters were established with the coefficient of determination, R2 = 0.9750, 0.9507 and 0.9516, respectively and the range of different parameters (juice yield, viscosity and clarity) of juice obtained from enzyme treated bael pulp was 72.5-86.6%, 1.34-1.66 (cps) and 17.7-28.9% T, respectively. The recommended enzymatic treatment conditions were: Incubation time 425 min, incubation temperature 47°C and pectinase concentration 5.0 mg/25 g bael pulp and the juice yield, viscosity and clarity under these conditions were 84.5%, 1.35 cps and 22.43% T, respectively.
  Sanjay Kumar , Sajal Kumar Das , Sumanta Dey , Pallab Maity , Mithu Guha , Vinay Choubey , Gautam Panda and Uday Bandyopadhyay
  A series of [(aryl)arylsufanylmethyl]pyridines (AASMP) have been synthesized. These compounds inhibited hemozoin formation, formed complexes (KD = 12 to 20 µM) with free heme (ferriprotoporphyrin IX) at a pH close to the pH of the parasite food vacuole, and exhibited antimalarial activity in vitro. The inhibition of hemozoin formation may develop oxidative stress in Plasmodium falciparum due to the accumulation of free heme. Interestingly, AASMP developed oxidative stress in the parasite, as evident from the decreased level of glutathione and increased formation of lipid peroxide, H2O2, and hydroxyl radical (·OH) in P. falciparum. AASMP also caused mitochondrial dysfunction by decreasing mitochondrial potential (ΔΨm) in malaria parasite, as measured by both flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Furthermore, the generation of ·OH may be mainly responsible for the antimalarial effect of AASMP since ·OH scavengers such as mannitol, as well as spin trap α-phenyl-n-tertbutylnitrone, significantly protected P. falciparum from AASMP-mediated growth inhibition. Cytotoxicity testing of the active compounds showed selective activity against malaria parasite with selectivity indices greater than 100. AASMP also exhibited profound antimalarial activity in vivo against chloroquine resistant P. yoelii. Thus, AASMP represents a novel class of antimalarial.
  Bhupander Kumar , R. Gaur , G. Goel , Meenu Mishra , Dev Prakash , S.K. Singh , R.B. Lal , Sanjay Kumar and C.S. Sharma
  A study was conducted to assess the levels of organic pollutants i.e. organochlorine pesticides, (OCPs), organophosphate pesticides (OPPs) and herbicides, in sediments from nine major municipal drains in Delhi, India. Sediment samples from Delhi’s municipal drains were extracted with acetone/dichloromethane (1:1v/v) and analyzed using GC and HPLC. The average concentration of ∑OCPs, ∑OPPs and ∑herbicides was 27.26±9.7 ng g-1 (dry wt.), 80.89±22.4 ng g-1 (dry wt.) and 16.20±4.45 ng g-1(dry wt.), respectively. Among OCPs ∑HCH alone accounts 63% followed by ∑DDT (16%), ∑endosulphan (13%) and drins 8%. The ratio of p,p’-DDT/∑DDT (0.23), p,p’-DDT/p,p’-DDE (0.26) and o,p’-DDT/p,p’-DDT (<0.01) indicates the aged mixture or past usage of DDT and no dicofol type DDT. Among OPPs Chlorpyriphos was the dominant pollutant with 89% of total OPPs. Pendimethalin accounts 77% of total herbicides followed by Butachlor (14%) and Alachlor (9%). The level of herbicides, OCPs and OPPs in this study were compared with Canadian Sediment Quality Guidelines, Interim Sediment Quality Guidelines (ISQG) and Probable Effect Level (PEL) and found much lower than fresh water sediment guideline values. However, it is recommended that regular intensive assessment for persistent organic pollutants and heavy metals to be conducted, due to environmental concerns.
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