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Articles by Sanjay Kapoor
Total Records ( 9 ) for Sanjay Kapoor
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty and Sanjay Kapoor
  As promising antibacterials, endolysins own several pertinent features viz., diverse novel mode of action, antibacterial spectrum, low probability of developing resistance and being highly active with explicit specificity against host bacteria. Bacteriophage endolysins are mureolytic enzymes which facilitate direct targeting of peptidoglycan bonds in the bacterial cell wall. Encoded by the bacteriophage genome they are synthesized at the end of the phage lytic life cycle, headed for lysing host cell and releasing newly produced virions. In addition to this “lysis from within”, endolysins from phages of gram-positive hosts are also able to swiftly lyse bacteria upon exogenous application. Lysozyme as well as endopeptidase like lysostaphine have been recommended in neonatal streptococcal and staphylococcal infection, respectively. Literature reveals strong potential of phage enzymes in human health care and veterinary medicine for control of pathogens and treatment of diverse systemic infections. They have wide applications in pathogen detection and development of diagnostics, as a means of biodefence, eliminating food pathogens and in control of phytopathogens. The defensins and cathelicidins can be exploited as enzybiotics among other families of antimicrobial peptide gene. In innate immunity such antibiotic peptides that are endogenous in nature play crucial role and forms first line of defense for protecting internal as well as external body surfaces of the host. The important portals of enzybiotics (EnzyBase and phiBIOTICS) are playing crucial role for disseminating the state of knowledge of enzybiotics. The present review discusses the widespread potential of various bacteriophage lysins/enzybiotics in the perspective of future antibacterial drug development.
  Neha Bhardwaj , Sanjeev K. Bhardwaj , Akash Deep , Swati Dahiya and Sanjay Kapoor
  The present review focuses on applications of bacteriophages (also called ‘Phages’) in biocontrol of foodborne pathogens. Food borne diseases caused by bacterial pathogens are a threat to the human health and national economy. Further, there is an increase in multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens and the conventional methods of food safety, generally involve use of chemicals having certain toxicity issues. The bacteriophages in contrast are natural enemies of bacteria and have regained their popularity as a natural biocontrol agent of bacterial pathogens. The bacteriophages are viruses that kill bacteria and are the most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 1030-1032) known organisms on earth. These are part of the normal microflora of all fresh and unprocessed foods and play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist. Recently, there is a gaining interest among researchers regarding practical applications of bacteriophages to improve food safety. Many bacteriophage based preparations have been approved by regulatory authorities for their usage in food safety as food additives and disinfectants. Mainly, the application of phages for biocontrol of food pathogens are classified into three categories: (1) Pre-harvest control of foodborne pathogens in food producing livestock and poultry, (2) Decontamination of inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments and (3) Post-harvest control of foodborne pathogens by direct applications of phages onto the harvested/processed foods. Commercially available phage products being marketed by several companies for reducing the presence of foodborne pathogenic bacteria in food and food production environment have been described and reviewed here.
  Baldev R. Gulati , Himanshu Sharma , T. Riyesh , Sandip K. Khurana and Sanjay Kapoor
  Nine members of the family Herpesviridae infect equines and two of them (EHV1 and EHV4) are the globally significant pathogens causing respiratory disease, abortion and more rarely paralysis. The ability of equid herpesviruses to establish life-long latent infection in lymphoid and neural tissues with periodic reactivation and shedding is central to the maintenance of these viruses in horse populations. Over 50% of horses become latently infected after infection with EHV1 and EHV4. During latency, expression of viral genes is highly restricted with expression of few or no viral proteins. The recent scientific advances have provided insight into the mechanism of equine herpesvirus pathogenesis, including latency. The establishment of latent infection is highly coordinated process regulated by inter-play of viral, host and environmental factors. In this article, we review how molecular, cellular and viral regulatory mechanisms influence the switch between latent and lytic infections.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal , Shyma K. Latheef , Mohd Yaqoob Wani and Sanjay Kapoor
  Avian/Bird flu, caused by Avian Influenza Virus (AIV) belonging to Orthomyxoviridae family, is the most fearful viral disease of birds. H5N1 subtype of AIV is of major concern for poultry as well as for humans due to its high economical impacts and zoonotic concerns. During the past ten years, the Highly Pathogenic Avian Influenza (HPAI) H5N1 subtype alone has affected more than 60 countries of the world. Domestic poultry is mostly affected by the disease episodes and outbreaks. Wild and migratory birds are the AIV reservoirs wherein H5N1 is found to be lethal. Major antigenic changes in Haemagglutinin (HA) or Neuraminidase (NA) result in periodic pandemics. Pigs can act as mixing vessel. The bird flu virus if gets the capability of transmitting from human to human can trigger a pandemic claiming millions of lives. A wide variety of serological tests and molecular tools have greatly aided in the diagnosis of avian flu. Disease management for the prevention of bird flu outbreaks including mass awareness and pandemic preparedness following World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines is of utmost importance. Interesting approaches of HPAI control are development of universal influenza virus vaccines and universal antibodies-based flu therapies. Vaccination using inactivated and recombinant vaccines is the common strategy adopted in different parts of the globe. Development of new generation vaccines is quiet noteworthy. Tamiflu is the drug of choice. Herbal therapy is gaining much attention to control disease in humans. All these aspects of the bird flu virus have been discussed vividly in the present review.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Amit Kumar Verma , S. Rajagunalan , Rajib Deb , K. Karthik , Sanjay Kapoor , Mahima , Ruchi Tiwari , Parmod Kumar Panwar and Sandip Chakraborty
  Flu viruses have mainly affected humans, birds and pigs worldwide. During the past 10 years these viruses are in limelight at a global level due to pandemic threats of Avian / Bird Flu and Swine Flu and their public health impacts, with added pandemic of swine flu virus recently. The current ongoing episodes of bird flu and swine flu are beyond the control, when and where or which country they start with nobody can predict. The continuous evolution and emergence of new strains indicate that the flu viruses are becoming more and more dangerous and this situation has posed a challenge to researchers to discover effective vaccines and therapeutics. Moreover, the role of pig as ‘mixing bowl’ for the virus to get reassorted has added to the complicated epidemiological scenario. The swine flu H1N1 reassorted subtype caused the first global pandemic in last 40 years, resulting in substantial illness, hospitalizations of millions of peoples and thousands of deaths throughout the world. A pace is there within these novel and emerging flu viruses and the scientific community, where the scientific community has to win the race so as to save the mankind. In this review, a brief overview on swine flu is presented highlighting the characteristics of the causative virus, the disease and its public health consequences, advances made in its diagnosis, vaccine and control, precautionary measures to be adapted in the wake of an outbreak.
  Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Mahima , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amit Kumar Verma , Rajib Deb , Ruchi Tiwari and Sanjay Kapoor
  Modern medicine has helped to a great extent to eradicate and cure several diseases of mankind and animals. But the existence of incurable diseases like cancer, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS), diabetes or rheumatoid arthritis, side effects of allopathic medicine, increasing trend of antibiotic resistance and chemicals and biopesticides causing dietary risk have made the situation more critical than ever before. Thus, it has become a matter of concern for the scientists and researchers to develop novel therapies. Bacteriophage therapy to treat pathogenic bacterial infections, virophage therapy for conservation of global system and avian egg yolk antibody therapy for designing prophylactic strategies against Gastrointestinal (GI) diseases are interesting approaches. Others include the use of cytokines as adjunctive immunomodulators, gene therapy focusing on diseases caused by single gene defects, RNAi technology to suppress specific gene of interest and apoptins for cancer treatment. Stem cell therapy against several diseases and ailments has also been discussed. The use of nanoparticles for better drug delivery, even though costly, has been given equal importance. Nevertheless, immunomodulation, be it through physiological, chemical or microbial products, or through essential micronutrients, probiotics, herbs or cow therapy prove to be cost-effective, causing minimum adverse reactions when compared to allopathy. Development in the field of molecular biology has created an enormous impact on vaccine development. The present review deals with all these novel and emerging therapies essential to safeguard the health of humans and companion animals.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Kuldeep Dhama , Sandip Chakraborty , Amit Kumar , Anu Rahal and Sanjay Kapoor
  Since the discovery of bacteriophages at the beginning of the 19th century their contribution to bacterial evolution and ecology and use in a variety of applications in biotechnology and medicine has been recognized and understood. Bacteriophages are natural bacterial killers, proven as best biocontrol agents due to their ability to lyse host bacterial cells specifically thereby helping in disease prevention and control. The requirement of such therapeutic approach is straight away required in view of the global emergence of Multidrug Resistant (MDR) strains of bacteria and rapidly developing resistance to antibiotics in both animals and humans along with increasing food safety concerns incuding of residual antibiotic toxicities. Phage typing is a popular tool to differentiate bacterial isolates and to identify and characterize outbreak-associated strains of Salmonella, Campylobacter, Escherichia and Listeria. Numerous methods viz. plaque morphology, ultracentrifugation in the density gradient of CsCl2, and random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) have been found to be effective in detection of various phages. Bacteriophages have been isolated and recovered from samples of animal waste products of different livestock farms. High titer cocktails of broad spectrum lytic bacteriophages are usually used for clinical trial for assessing their therapeutic efficacy against antibiotic unresponsive infections in different animals. Bacteriophage therapy also helps to fight various bacterial infections of poultry viz. colibacillosis, salmonellosis and listeriosis. Moreover, the utility of phages concerning biosafety has raised the importance to explore and popularize the therapeutic dimension of this promising novel therapy which forms the topic of discussion of the present review.
  Ruchi Tiwari , Sandip Chakraborty , Kuldeep Dhama , Mohd. Yaqoob Wani , Amit Kumar and Sanjay Kapoor
  Darwin’s theory of natural selection and concept of survival of fittest of Wallace is a universal truth which derives the force of life among all live entities on this biosphere. Issues regarding food safety along with increased drug resistance and emerging zoonotic infections have proved that multidisciplinary efforts are in demand for human and animal welfare. This has led to development of various novel therapies the list of which remains incomplete without mentioning about phages. Homologous and non-homologous recombination along with point mutation and addition of new genes play role in their evolution. The rapid emergence of the antibiotic resistant strains of bacteria have created keen interest in finding necessary alternatives to check microbial infections and there comes the importance of phages. Phages kill the bacteria either by lysis or by releasing holins. Bacteriophages; the viruses that live on bacteria are nowadays considered as the best biocontrol agents. They are used as replacers of antibiotics; food industry promoter; guard of aquatic life as well as of plants; pre-slaughter treatment agents; Generally Recognized As Safe (GRAS) food additives; Typing agent of bacteria; active tool of super bug therapy; in post harvest crops and food and during post infection and also to combat intracellular pathogens viz. Mycobacteria and Mycoplasma. Cyanophages/phycophages are particularly useful in controlling blooms produced by various genera of algae and cyanobacteria. By performing centrifugation studies and based on electron microscopy certain virus like particles containing ds RNA have been confirmed as mycophages. They are well proven as threat to pathogenic fungi (both fungal hyphae and yeast). Those that infect yeasts are called zymophages. Virophages have exquisite specificity for their viral host, hence can extensively be used for genetic studies and can also act as evolutionary link. After the discovery of very first virophage till now, a total of 3 virophages have been discovered including the Sputnik virophages that are used to study genetic recombination. Virophages also find their application in antiviral therapy; as engineer of ecological system etc. In brief, present review deals with various dimensions of these beneficial viruses that are being used and can be successfully used in future for safeguarding biosphere including animal and human health.
  Kuldeep Dhama , K. Karthik , Sandip Chakraborty , Ruchi Tiwari , Sanjay Kapoor , Amit Kumar and Prasad Thomas
  Diagnosis is an important part in case of animal husbandry as treatment of a disease depends on it. Advancement in molecular biology has generated various sophisticated tools like Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR), its versions along with pen-side diagnostic techniques. Every diagnostic test however has both advantages and disadvantages; PCR is not an exception to this statement. To ease the odds faced by PCR several non-PCR techniques which can amplify DNA at a constant temperature has become the need of hour, thus generating a variety of isothermal amplification techniques including Nucleic Acid Sequence-Based Amplification (NASBA) along with Self-Sustained Sequence Replication (3SR) and Strand Displacement Amplification (SDA) and Loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) test. LAMP stands out to be a good and effective diagnostic test for empowering in developing countries as it does not require sophisticated equipments and skilled personnel and proves to be cost-effective. Performance of LAMP mainly relies on crafting of six primers (including 2 loop primers) ultimately accelerating the reaction. LAMP amplifies DNA in the process pyrophosphates are formed causing turbidity that facilitates visualisation in a more effective way than PCR. The Bst and Bsm polymerase are the required enzymes for LAMP that does not possess 5'-3' exonuclease activity. Results can be visualized by adding DNA binding dye, SYBR green. LAMP is more stable than PCR and real-time PCR. Non-involvement of template DNA preparation and ability to generate 109 copies of DNA are added benefits that make it more effective than NASBA or 3SR and SDA. Thus, it fetches researcher’s interest in developing various versions of LAMP viz., its combination with lateral flow assay or micro LAMP and more recently lyophilized and electric (e) LAMP. Availability of ready to use LAMP kits has helped diagnosis of almost all pathogens. LAMP associated technologies however needs to be developed as a part of LAMP platform rather than developing them as separate entities. This review deals with all these salient features of this newly developed tool that has enlightened the world of diagnosis.
 
 
 
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