Asian Science Citation Index is committed to provide an authoritative, trusted and significant information by the coverage of the most important and influential journals to meet the needs of the global scientific community.  
ASCI Database
308-Lasani Town,
Sargodha Road,
Faisalabad, Pakistan
Fax: +92-41-8815544
Contact Via Web
Suggest a Journal
 
Articles by Sandro Cerrate
Total Records ( 6 ) for Sandro Cerrate
  Zurong Wang , Sandro Cerrate , Cesar Coto , Fenglan Yan and P.W. Waldroup
  This study was conducted to evaluate the bioavailability of an organic copper source, MINTREX® Cu, compared with reagent grade Cu sulfate as a source of Cu in broiler diets. Nutritionally complete basal diets were supplemented with either copper sulfate or MINTREX Cu to provide diets with 0, 10, 25, 50, 125, 250 and 500 mg kg-1 of supplemental Cu. Fifty commercial broiler strain (Cobb 500) male chicks were placed in each of 48 pens. Each diet (except for 500 mg kg-1) was fed to four replicate pens. The 500 mg kg-1 level was fed to two replicate pens for each source. There were two feeding phases including starter (0-21 d) and grower (21-35 d). At the end of each phase, birds were weighed by pens and two birds per pen (four birds per pen for the 500 mg kg-1 levels) were killed to take liver and tibia samples for analysis of Cu concentration. Overall, there was no effect of Cu source or dietary Cu concentration on feed conversion or mortality. At 14 d the birds in the MINTREX treatment weighed significantly more than the birds in the Cu sulfate treatment. High Cu concentrations markedly decreased (p<0.0001) body weight regardless of Cu sources in both phases. Elevated dietary Cu concentration significantly increased (p<0.01) tibia ash Cu concentration for both Cu sources in both phases; however there was no good linear relationship between tibia Cu accumulation and non-zero Cu consumption. There were marked effects (p<0.05) of Cu source, concentration and their interaction on 14 d dry liver Cu concentration. Based on dry liver Cu concentration regressed on non-zero copper consumption, the relative bioavailability of MINTREX Cu was 111.63% for 14 d and 110.71% for 35 d when bioavailability of reagent grade Cu sulfate was set as 100%. This indicated that MINTREX Cu source has greater biological availability than reagent grade Cu sulfate for broilers.
  Zurong Wang , Sandro Cerrate , Cesar Coto , Frances Yan and Park W. Waldroup
  A study was conducted to evaluate the use of constant or increasing levels of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in diets for broilers. Diets were formulated for starter (0-14 d), grower (14 to 35 d) and finisher (35 to 42 d) periods to contain 0, 15, or 30% DDGS. Diets were formulated on digestible amino acid basis to meet current U.S. poultry industry nutrient levels and were maintained isocaloric and isonitrogenous. Varying levels of DDGS were fed during the study; with some birds receiving a constant level while others received increasing amounts as the bird aged. The DDGS levels used in the study were as follows (starter-grower-finisher, %): 1) 0-0-0; 2) 0-15-15; 3) 0-15-30; 4) 0-30-30; 5) 15-15-15; 6) 15-15-30; 7) 15-30-30; 8) 30-30-30. Starter diets were crumbled, while grower and finisher diets were pelleted. Each of the dietary treatments was fed to four replicate pens of 25 birds each. Body weights and feed consumption were determined at 14, 35 and 42 d of age. At the conclusion of the study five representative birds were processed for dressing percentage and parts yield. The results indicated that increasing DDGS levels had a trend to reduce the weight:volume ratio and visually decreased pellet quality. Diets containing 15% DDGS could be fed throughout the entire feeding period of 1 to 42 d of age with no adverse effects on live performance or carcass composition when diets were formulated on a digestible amino acid basis. Inclusion of 30% DDGS in the diet reduced the weight:volume ratio and markedly reduced pellet quality. Birds fed diets with 30% DDGS during the starter or grower periods had reduced body weight, elevated feed conversion and typically had reduced breast meat yield, compared to birds fed diets with 15% DDGS or birds fed the control diet with no DDGS. Feeding DDGS for the last seven days prior to slaughter after being fed diets with 15% during starter or grower period might possibly be acceptable in terms of body weight gain and feed conversion but still resulted in a significant reduction in breast meat yield. It is possible that some of the essential amino acids that were not considered in the formulation of the diets may become marginal or deficient in diets with 30% DDGS. Further studies are suggested to evaluate needs for these amino acids in diets with high levels of DDGS.
  Sandro Cerrate and Park Waldroup
  Maximum Profit Feed Formulation (MPFF) is proposed as a new approach to formulation of broiler diets which predicts the best profit for given ingredient and broiler prices, nutrient requirements and performance. Absolute and relative equations for body weight and feed intake as a function of Dietary Nutrient Density (DND) were developed and included into the objective function of Maximum Profit Programming 3.0. Maximum performance and profitability were compared in terms of DND. Factors such as livability, temperature, processing cost, ingredient and broiler prices, starting and ending broiler prices as well as comparisons of two dynamic models, Body Weight (BW) or cut-up parts (CW), were evaluated to determine changes in DND and to compare the profitability between MPFF and Least-cost Feed Formulation (LCFF). Starter, grower and finisher DND were calculated from the mean of DND obtained by the MPFF. The maximum performances for cut-up parts and body weight were 3.250 and 3.300 ME kcal/g of DND respectively using simulations of the calculated equations, whereas the maximum profits for them were at 3.169 and 3.177 ME kcal/g respectively using the MPFF. Livability slightly decreased the DND, while temperature and processing cost did not affect the DND. However, the ingredient and broiler prices did affect the DND. As broiler meat or corn price increased, the DND was also increased but as the price of soybean meal or poultry oil increased, the DND tended to decrease. For the above variables, use of the MPFF resulted in better profits than did use of LCFF. As expected, the use of ending broiler prices produced better profitability than use of starting broiler prices. If the starting broiler prices were used, the MPFF resulted in higher profits than with LCFF and had similar pattern in profits as ending prices. The dynamic model CW estimated a narrower range of DND compared with those of dynamic model BW. Both dynamic models were more profitable than those of the LCFF model. Starter, grower and finisher DND decreased as the bird aged. This new formulation method can be used to complement least cost formulation to get the best profitability and is recommended for Ross male lines (on which the performance data was developed) with the static nutrient requirement and ingredients used. Requirements for other strains should be quantified by dose-response.
  Sandro Cerrate and Park Waldroup
  Four economic nutritional models including a constant calorie-nutrient ratio (C-E:P), a variable calorie-protein ratio (V-E:Pg), a constant protein-amino acid ratio (DBP) and a variable calorie-protein ratio for the finisher period (V-E:Pd) were compared in terms of relative performance, economic nutrient requirements and profitability based on relative performance expressed as a function of nutrients, relative or real prices of feedstuffs and broilers and maximum profit feed formulation. The relative body weight or feed intake in response to nutrient contents tended to increase or decrease respectively with particular differences for each model. The economic nutrient requirements were different for each model such as 3.139 Mcal/kg for C-E:P, 2.968 Mcal/kg and 20.7% of protein for V-E:Pg model, 22.44% of protein for DBP model, 3.167 Mcal/kg for V-E:Pd and 3.134 Mcal/kg for C-E:P-3.15 model. As the price of broilers or corn increased, the energy or protein content was increased for C-E:P, V-E:Pg and DBP models except the energy level of V-E:Pg model. However, as the Soybean Meal (SBM) or poultry oil price increased, the energy or protein content was reduced for the three models indicated above except the energy level of V-E:Pg model. Energy levels of the V-E:Pd model were kept almost constant as the broiler or ingredient price raised. Under relative price of feedstuffs and broilers the best profits depended on the model used, being more economical when the broiler or corn price increased for the C-E:P or DBP models respectively. The best profitability using real price of broiler, corn or SBM for twelve months came from the C-E:P model followed by the DBP model. From the two models, V-E:Pd and C-E:P-3.15 models, the V-E:Pd model had the best benefit but with a narrow range of growth response and economic conditions. These data suggest that the C-E:P model is the best method of formulation to maximize performance or profitability; however, for some corn price variation the DBP model can be more profitable though the carcass quality can be negatively affected.
  Sandro Cerrate and Park Waldroup
  Nutritional models for comparison of environmental conditions on responses to dietary energy using data from literature were evaluated to formulate broiler diets by maximum profit feed formulation with real or simulated prices of corn and soybean meal. These diets were formulated based on Corn and Soybean Meal (C-SBM) or with Wheat and Cottonseed Meal (+W-CM) as alternative sources of energy and protein. Average body weight gain or feed intake slopes at normal temperature were significantly higher than those at heat stress. The rate of gain per calorie was two times higher at normal compared to heat stress and the rate of feed intake per calorie was half as high at normal than did at heat stress. At real or simulated prices, the economic energy content in most cases was reduced by heat stress compared to those at normal temperature. For real prices the energy reductions from normal temperature to heat stress were from 3.254 to 3.015 kcal/g for diets based on C-SBM or from 3.2 to 2.961 kcal/g for diets based on +W-CM. These economic energy reductions were around 7% from real prices, up to 10% from simulated corn prices and up to 9% from simulated SBM prices. The inclusion of +W-CM reduced the economic energy content and increased the profitability compared to those based on C-SBM diets. These data indicate that broiler diets fed during heat stress should be formulated with reduced economic energy content due to decreased rate of gain or feed intake per calorie compared to those at normal temperature.
  Sandro Cerrate and Park Waldroup
  Empirical nutritional models were developed for comparison of the effects of two feed forms on responses to dietary energy using data from literature to formulate broiler diets by maximum profit feed formulation with real or simulated prices of corn and soybean meal. Broiler diets were formulated based on Corn and Soybean Meal (C-SBM) and or with Wheat and Cottonseed Meal (+W-CM) as alternatives sources. Estimated average body weight gain or feed intake slopes of birds fed mash feed were significantly greater than that of birds fed pelleted feed. The rate of gain per calorie of mash-fed birds was three times higher than that of pellet-fed birds and the rate of feed intake per calorie for pellet-fed birds was six times smaller than for mash-fed birds. The economic energy content in most cases was decreased by pelleted feed compared to mash feed at real or simulated prices. For real prices the energy reductions from mash feed to processed feed were from 3.254 to 3.015 kcal/g for diets based on C-SBM or from 3.2 to 2.961 kcal/g for diets based on +W-CM. These economic energy reductions were around 7% from real prices, up to 10% from simulated corn prices and up to 11% from simulated SBM prices. Broiler diets formulated with +W-CM decreased the economic energy content and increased the profitability compared to those based on C-SBM diets. These data indicate that broiler diets fed as pellets should be formulated with reduced economic energy content due to decreased rate of gain or feed intake per calorie compared to those at mash feed.
 
 
 
Copyright   |   Desclaimer   |    Privacy Policy   |   Browsers   |   Accessibility