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Articles by Samuel Sahile
Total Records ( 2 ) for Samuel Sahile
  Ermias Teshome , Chemeda Fininsa and Samuel Sahile
  Owing to its high protein content, faba bean (Vicia fabae L.) leaves’ phylloplane harbors many microorganisms besides Botrytis fabae which could have antagonistic potential. The use of chemical fungicides against chocolate spot has been a common practice, but negative effects to the environment forces a search for alternative options. The objective of this study was to explore fungal isolates residing on faba bean leaves and evaluate their antagonistic potential against B. fabae. For this matter, 236 leaf samples were collected from different districts of West Hararghe and Bale zones, which yielded 72 fungal isolates. These isolates were evaluated for their biocontrol potential against B. fabae in vitro. ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) for Antibiosis, percent growth inhibition, growth rate and parasitism tests showed significant difference (p<0.0001) among fungal isolates. In antibiosis test, two isolates, Trichoderma harzianum and Penicillium spp. formed higher mean inhibition zone of 7.33 and 7.00 mm, respectively and the highest mean colony growth inhibition were recorded from T. harzianum (69%) and T. oblongisporum (58.1%) over the control. Trichoderma spp. showed higher mean growth rate (14-16.67 mm day-1) than any of other fungal isolates and on the other hand higher mean diameter of lysed mycelium (12 mm) was recorded from Aspergillus spp. and Penicillium spp. This study revealed higher distribution of biocontrol agents and their antagonistic ability over B. fabae, in Ethiopia. Particularly Trichoderma spp. showed better potential in controlling B. fabae and can be further evaluated for its commercialization, either alone or as a component of integrated disease management.
  Alachew Embiale , Muhammad Hussein , Azamal Husen , Samuel Sahile and Kasim Mohammed
  In recent years, drought has been a serious problem in Ethiopia and elsewhere which has adversely affected plant productivity. This study aimed to investigate the effects of water stress on growth, biomass and foliar characteristics in three cultivars (Brukitu, Tegegnech and Adi) of Pisum sativum. The control plant pots were uniformly irrigated at 3 day intervals to maintain 100% field capacity. Water-stress conditions were imposed by subjecting plants to a gradual decrease of soil water availability such as watering at 6 day intervals (slight-stress condition), 9 day intervals (mild-stress condition) and 12 day intervals (severe-stress condition). Results revealed significant differences among the cultivars, water-stress treatments and their interaction, indicating the cultivars variability and differential response to water stress. Water stress adversely affected growth, biomass production, leaf water status and other leaf characteristics such as pigment concentration (chlorophyll a, b and total chlorophyll), maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (PS II) (Fv/Fm), net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate in all cultivars, as stress level was increased in comparison to control plants. The relatively less decline in the studied parameters of Tegegnech exhibited a reasonable tolerance ability of this cultivar, whereas Brukitu and Adi proved to be sensitive to water-deficit condition.
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