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Articles by Samuel S. Gidding
Total Records ( 4 ) for Samuel S. Gidding
  C. Alex McMahan , Samuel S. Gidding and Henry C. McGill
  Atherosclerosis begins in childhood or adolescence and progresses during the young adult years to cause clinical coronary heart disease (CHD) in middle-aged and older individuals. This article reviews evidence regarding the association of the major established CHD risk factors with atherosclerosis in adolescents and young adults, with emphasis on the findings of the Pathobiological Determinants of Atherosclerosis in Youth (PDAY) study. Age, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration, smoking, hypertension, obesity, and hyperglycemia are positively associated with atherosclerotic lesions, whereas female gender and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol concentration are negatively associated with lesions. The PDAY study developed a risk score that provides a weighted summary of the risk factor effects on advanced atherosclerosis. Although developed to predict advanced atherosclerotic lesions, the risk score is also associated with all stages of lesion severity, including the transition from normal tissue to the earliest anatomically detectable lesion. Application of the PDAY risk score to data from longitudinal studies of risk factors in young adults shows that early measurement of risk factors predicts atherosclerosis assessed noninvasively up to 15 years later, and that subsequent change in risk score during the 15-year interval also predicts atherosclerosis. These findings provide strong support for maintaining a low lifetime risk and for focusing on preventing atherosclerosis as the most effective way to prevent CHD. Risk-factor control beginning in the late teenage years will retard development of the earliest stage of atherosclerosis and its progression, and will reduce or delay occurrence of CHD.
  Anne C. Goldberg , Paul N. Hopkins , Peter P. Toth , Christie M. Ballantyne , Daniel J. Rader , Jennifer G. Robinson , Stephen R. Daniels , Samuel S. Gidding , Sarah D. de Ferranti , Matthew K. Ito , Mary P. McGowan , Patrick M. Moriarty , William C. Cromwell , Joyce L. Ross and Paul E. Ziajka
  The familial hypercholesterolemias (FH) are a group of genetic defects resulting in severe elevations of blood cholesterol levels and increased risk of premature coronary heart disease. FH is among the most commonly occurring congenital metabolic disorders. FH is a treatable disease. Aggressive lipid lowering is necessary to achieve the target LDL cholesterol reduction of at least 50% or more. Even greater target LDL cholesterol reductions may be necessary for FH patients who have other CHD risk factors. Despite the prevalence of this disease and the availability of effective treatment options, FH is both underdiagnosed and undertreated, particularly among children. Deficiencies in the diagnosis and treatment of FH indicate the need for greatly increased awareness and understanding of this disease, both on the part of the public and of healthcare practitioners. This document provides recommendations for the screening, diagnosis and treatment of FH in pediatric and adult patients developed by the National Lipid Association Expert Panel on Familial Hypercholesterolemia. This report goes beyond previously published guidelines by providing specific clinical guidance for the primary care clinician and lipid specialist with the goal of improving care of patients with FH and reducing their elevated risk for CHD.
  W. Virgil Brown , Catherine J. McNeal and Samuel S. Gidding
  Not available
  Małgorzata Mysliwiec , Mieczysław Walczak , Ewa Małecka-Tendera , Anna Dobrzanska , Barbara Cybulska , Krzysztof Filipiak , Artur Mazur , Przemysława Jarosz-Chobot , Agnieszka Szadkowska , Andrzej Rynkiewicz , Alicja Chybicka , Piotr Socha , Agnieszka Brandt , Joanna Bautembach-Minkowska , Tomasz Zdrojewski , Janusz Limon , Samuel S. Gidding and Maciej Banach
  Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) affects on average 1 in 500 individuals in European countries, and it is estimated that FH in Poland may affect more than 80,000 people. However, in Poland, only about 20% of the population is estimated to have been diagnosed with FH, of which only a small number receive adequate treatment. FH results in more rapid development of atherosclerosis and is associated with a high risk of cardiovascular events. Atherosclerosis develops beginning in childhood in patients with FH and reaches advanced stages before clinical manifestations develop. Inadequate diagnostics and treatment of FH in Polish children suggests a need for raising the level of awareness and understanding of the condition in both society and among health professionals. These recommendations present the current epidemiological status, guidelines for diagnosing FH in Polish children and adolescents, and effective treatment options.
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