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Articles by Samiullah Khan
Total Records ( 8 ) for Samiullah Khan
  Mohammad Imran Kozgar , Samiullah Khan and Mohd Rafiq Wani
  Increased malnutrition and food insecurity for the past several years in countries, like India, is point of great concern. Present study was undertaken to reveal the potential role of mutagenesis to induce genetic variability of total seed Fe (μg g-1) and Mn (μg g-1) contents and their correlations to the yield/plant (g) in chickpea. Fe and Mn deficiencies are usually responsible for major malnutrition conditions, while lower yield of crops results to food insecurity. Seeds of chickpea were treated with ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS), gamma rays and their combinations and studied their effects on the components of variation for yield/plant, the total seed Fe and Mn contents. Six high yielding mutants were isolated in M2 generation and their Fe and Mn contents were evaluated. Positive correlation was seen between total Fe and Mn contents to yield in the isolated mutants at lower doses of mutagen while the correlation between Fe to Mn contents was found to be negative.
  Sonu Goyal , Mohammad Rafiq Wani and Samiullah Khan
  Background and Objective: Chlorophyll mutation frequency is useful in assessing the potency of a mutagen. Hence, scoring of chlorophyll mutations are dependable indices for evaluating the genetic effects of mutagenic treatments. Present investigation was undertaken to understand the response of urdbean varieties T-9 and Pant U-30 to individual and combined treatments of gamma rays and EMS for identifying such mutagenic treatments causing maximum chlorophyll mutations which could be exploited for inducing beneficial viable mutations in subsequent generations. Materials and Methods: Seeds of two urdbean varieties were irradiated with 100, 200, 300 and 400 Gy doses of gamma rays. For chemical treatments, seeds were treated with 0.1-0.4% of EMS for 6 h and for combination treatments, dry seeds of each variety were first irradiated with gamma rays at 200 and 300 Gy followed by the treatment with 0.2 and 0.3% of EMS. The mutagen treated seeds were sown in complete randomized block design to raise M1 generation. The M1 seeds were sown in next season in plant progeny rows for raising M2 generation. Chlorophyll mutations were observed when seedlings were 8-15 days old in M2 generation. They were identified and classified according to Gustafson’s method. Results: Six kinds of chlorophyll mutants viz., albina, chlorina, maculata, xantha, virescent and viridis were recorded in M2 generation when seedlings were 7-15 days old. Out of the six chlorophyll mutation types, albina, chlorina and xantha survived upto 7-15 days only, while the other three types were viable and set seeds. Gamma rays alone as well as in combination with EMS produced large number of albina mutations, while EMS alone induced the maximum number of chlorina mutations in both the varieties. Frequency of chlorophyll mutations was dose dependent and increased with increasing dose of each mutagen. The combined treatments of gamma rays+EMS produced higher frequency of chlorophyll mutations as compared to their individual treatments. Conclusion: Chlorophyll mutations could be exploited for identifying the threshold dose of a mutagen that would increase the probability of retrieving economically useful mutations in ensuing generations.
  Sonu Goyal and Samiullah Khan
  Breeding programmes to improve nutritious pulse crop have not been commensurate with its role in the Indian diet. Induced mutations have played a great role in increasing world food security, since new food crop varieties embedded with various induced mutations have contributed to the significant increase of crop production. Though, the crop improvement work on urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) has been in progress for several years at various state Agriculture universities and ICAR institutes in India, the programmes lacked systematic and coordinated efforts. It was only after 1967 that the crop along with other pulses started receiving thrust under the All India Coordinated Programme on Improvement of Pulses (AICPIP). Plant breeding requires genetic variation of useful traits for crop improvement. Mutagenic agents, such as radiations and certain chemicals, can be used to induced mutations and generate variation from which desired mutants may be selected.
  Sonu Goyal , Mohammad Rafiq Wani and Samiullah Khan
  Background and Objective: The nature and extent of genetic variability available within the species forms the basis for effective selection. Present study was aimed at to explore the possibility of inducing genetic variability in M2 and M3 generations of urdbean following mutagenesis with individual and combination treatments of gamma rays and ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS) for selecting enviable early flowering and maturing lines for late spring season. Materials and Methods: Physically, seeds of two varieties of urdbean were irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays at NBRI, Lucknow. For chemical treatments, seeds were treated with 0.2 and 0.3% of EMS for 6 h and for combination treatments, dry seeds of each variety were firstly irradiated with 200 and 300 Gy doses of gamma rays followed by the treatment with 0.2% of EMS. The mutagen treated seeds were sown in complete randomized block design to raise M1 generation. The M1 seeds were sown in plant progeny rows to grow M2 generation. The 10 M2 progenies showing significant negative deviation in mean values from their respective controls particularly for flowering and maturity were selected to raise M3 generation. Analysis of variance was performed to assess the extent of induced variation for both the traits. Results: Data for days to flowering and maturity in M3 generation had resulted in reducing the flowering and maturity period by more than four days after mutagenic treatments in both the varieties. Combination treatments were found to be more effective in reducing the flowering and maturity period than the individual treatments of gamma rays and EMS. Genotypic coefficient of variation (GCV), heritability (h2) and genetic advance (GA) increased manifold in the treated population. Conclusion: The quantitative traits (flowering and maturity) exhibited higher genetic variability in M2 as compared to M3 generation indicating that potential gain could be achieved through selection in early (M2) generation.
  Bushra Uzair , Abdul Hameed , Sidrah Nazir , Barkat Ali Khan , Fehmida Fasim , Samiullah Khan and Farid Menaa
  Background and Objective: Synergistic combinations of various antimicrobial agents have been introduced as extra successful strategies to combat multidrug resistant (MDR) infections. This study was undertaken to evaluate MDR profiling of Staphylococcus aureus strains isolated from clinical specimens of two public hospitals of twin Pakistani cities as well as to explore in vitro antibacterial potential of Nigella sativa L. (black cumin or black seeds) extract against Mec A gene positive Staphylococcus aureus strains. Materials and Methods: The MDR strains were then screened for positive Mec A gene by PCR and sequencing. A total of 500 bacterial strains were subjected to antimicrobial and Nigella sativa seeds susceptibility and minimal inhibitory concentration assays. The data were evaluated as Mean±Standard deviation of five independent experiments. The results were analyzed using t-test with SPSS version 16.0. Results: Methanolic extracts of Nigella sativa seeds showed maximum activity against Mec A gene positive Staphylococcus aureus alone and in combination with the penicillin antibiotic Augmentin® plus the second-generation Cephamycin, Cephalosporins, Mefoxin® (Cefoxitin). The anti-MRSA activity was reduced when methanolic extracts of Nigella sativa seeds were used in combination with the pain reliever and the fever reducer paracetamol (acetaminophen). Eventually, it has been observed that the anti-staphylococcal activity of Nigella sativa led to changes in bacterial cell morphology indicating that the cell wall of Gram-positive bacteria as likely a target of action. Conclusion: This study provides new insights about synergistic antimicrobial and Nigella sativa crude extract activities against MDR Staphylococcus aureus strains.
  Latif Ullah Khan , Rahmat Ali Khan , Samiullah Khan , Syeda Asma Bano , Fehmida Fasim and Bushra Uzair
  Background and Objective: Various parts of medicinal plants have been used to treat specific disorder from ancient times. Swertia chirayita (Roxb. ex Fleming) is a customary folklore medicine, used in the treatment of liver disorders, fevers, dysentery, diarrhea, stomach problems and other disorders. The present study was carried out in order to assess the antioxidant activity, to evaluate the antifungal properties of the plant’s root and to observe anticancer potential of methanolic extract of Swertia chirayita root. Materials and Methods: Phytochemical analysis and different chemical tests for the screening and identification of bioactive chemical constituents in Swertia chirayita methanolic root extract (SCME) were carried out using the standard procedures. The plants were purchased from local herbal market. In vitro determination of antioxidant properties of SCME were conducted using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)radical scavenging activity, H2O2 scavenging activity, Beta-carotene bleaching assay, total antioxidant activity by phosphomolybdenum method, azinobis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) radical cation scavenging activity and hydroxyl radical scavenging activity. Anticancer activity of SCME was determined according to the protocol of brine shrimp lethality test. Antifungal potential was determined by measuring zone of inhibition on Potato Dextrose Agar (PDA) plates. The different concentrations of SCME used were 3.0, 1.5, 0.75 and 0.37 mg mL–1. The data were evaluated as Mean±Standard Deviations of 5 independent experimental responses. The results were analyzed using t-test for independent samples with SPSS version 16.0. Results: Phytochemical analysis of SCME showed that phlobatannins, tannins, saponins and terpenoids were present. The SCME exhibited strong antioxidant activity in a concentration dependent manner for in all six models. The SCME at dose of 3 mg mL–1 caused 100% death rate of brine shrimp after 72 h. The SCME showed potent activity against Aspergillus flavus (87%) followed by Aspergillus niger (88%) while the highest activity was shown against Aspergillus fumigatus (92%). Conclusion: The SCME exhibited strong antioxidant, antifungal and cytotoxic potential. Purification of different bioactive compounds should be carried out and in vivo studies are required for further verification.
  Rafiul Amin Laskar , Samiullah Khan , Shahnawaz Khursheed , Aamir Raina and Ruhul Amin
  In the present scenario of variable natural environment and sky-high population, sustainable boost in the agricultural productivity is the utmost priority. Induce mutagenesis generates noble genetic combination without affecting the overall genomic makeup of crop, thus, providing essential genetic variation for any crop improvement programme. The present study has been carried out to investigate the comparative mutagenicity of gamma rays and HZ on chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) genotype (avrodhi) at M2 generation developed from seeds of treated M1 plants population. The assessment on phenotypic expression for the studied qualitative and quantitative traits showed considerable deviations in all the treatments and significant positive shift in 0.01 and 0.02% doses compared to control while 0.04% proved to be most mutagenic with highest significant negative deviation. A broad spectrum and frequency of macro mutations were induced affecting all plant parts and different morphological variants were screened and isolated on the basis of economic importance from the treated populations. Economically important mutations like branching pattern, stem structure, plant height, dwarf and bushy growth habit, foliage type, flowering behavior and maturity were identified and the frequency of the variants were found to be more in 0.03% doses. Explicitly, HZ doses provided greater deviations in both directions in the quantitative phenotypic characters studied while frequencies of distinct morphological mutants were more in gamma rays. The induced elite phenotypes (blue flowered, double flowered, pigmented leaf, bushy and early mutants), having strong correlation with agronomic traits, will definitely be helpful in selection of improved mutants in subsequent generations.
  M. Imran Kozgar , Sonu Goyal and Samiullah Khan
  Ethylmethane sulphonate (EMS) has been long considered as a potential chemical mutagen for inducing genetic variability in crop plants. This study tries to elucidate out the effect of different doses (0.1 to 0.4%) of EMS on the two species of genus Vigna thereinafter V. radiata and V. mungo in M1 and M2 generations for isolation of putative mutants and their respective comparative studies. Selection of mutants is based upon the variation in genetic parameters for yield and certain yield contributing characters. The comparative studies on the estimation of total seed protein content and nitrate reductase (EC activity, NRA, in both generations of these two species have also been studied in order to reveal the potentiality of mutants to be isolated for raising M3 generation. In the present study, a better variant doses of, EMS were found to be very effective in generating mutation for higher yield in both species and there was a linear correlation of the total seed protein content to NRA and the total plant yield. The accuracy of the selected mutants in M2 generation was satisfactorily evaluated and would help in isolating wide range of mutant pools accurately to larger extent in shorter duration.
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