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Articles by Sahar H. Mohamed
Total Records ( 3 ) for Sahar H. Mohamed
  Suzanne M. Wagdy , Sahar H. Mohamed and Fakhriya S. Taha
  Jojoba defatted meal contains toxic compounds mainly simmondsin and simmondsin 2-ferulate. The aim of the present investigation was to study the solubility pattern of simmondsin, simmondsin 2- ferulate, protein, non-protein nitrogen and phenolic compounds present in Jojoba meal at pH ranging from 1-12. Both the supernatant and precipitate resulting after extraction at a certain pH were analyzed for the above mentioned components. The simmondsins were identified and quantified by thin layer chromatography. The antimicrobial activities of the 12 pH extracts were evaluated. Results revealed that the precipitate containing lowest simmondsin 0.55, 0.55 and 0.74 g/100 g meal was achieved at pH 1, 2 and 12, respectively. Meanwhile simmondsin 2-ferulate amounted to 0. 67, 0.72 and 0.72 g/100 g meal, at pH 9, 1 and 2, respectively. Isoelectric point of jojoba meal protein showed to be between pH 3-4 with least solubilized protein 14.26-14.08% and highest precipitated protein in the residue 17.74-17.92% protein. Non-protein nitrogen ranged between 2-3.5% in supernatant and between 7-8.6% in the precipitate. Phenolic compounds extracted in the supernatant increase with increasing pH except at pH 4 and 8 where they exhibited some decrease. Normally, the phenolic compounds in the residue followed an opposite trend. Extract at pH 1 inhibited the growth of the five examined bacteria strains. Extracts of jojoba meal resulting from pH 2, 5, 6 and 8 showed inhibition of only one of the five bacterial strains. In conclusion, simmondsins can be effectively removed from the jojoba meal at pH 1, 2 and 12. Jojoba extract at pH 1 exhibited good antibacterial activity.
  H.A. Murad , Sahar H. Mohamed and Asmaa G. Abu-El-Khair
  Background and Objective: Huge amount of whey and permeate are produced annually and can be used as substrate for production of valuable products. The purpose of this work was to employed hydrolyzed lactose of whey as a cheaper carbon source for reducing the cost of production of xanthan gum on submerged culture and solid agar medium. Methodology: Whey basal medium supplemented with different growth nutrient involved carbon, nitrogen (organic and inorganic) and amino acids and were used for xanthan production. Lactose of whey was acid hydrolyzed or partially hydrolyzed through preculturing process with Lactobacillus rhamnosus for 24-48 h before inoculating the production medium with Xanthomonas campesteris pv. campestris for xanthan production. Data were statistically analyzed by SAS software. Results: Acid hydrolyzed whey supplemented with 1% sucrose supported production of 28 g L–1 of xanthan gum. The precultured lactose mineral medium with Lactobacillus rhamnosus produced 17.6 g L–1 of xanthan on a medium precultured for 24 h. Diammonium phosphate was the best inorganic nitrogen source whilst peptone was the best organic nitrogen source supported production of 20 and 36 g L–1 of xanthan gum, respectively in submerged culture compared with 4.2 and 4 g L–1 of xanthan on solid agar medium, respectively. Cystein, alanine and histidine yielded a good yield of xanthan especially cystein which gave a yield reached 35 g L–1. The buffering system exhibited profound effect on xanthan yield which reached its maximal value at pH 7. Conclusion: The hydrolyzed lactose can be used successfully for production of xanthan gum with employing microbial biotechnology techniques including acid pretreatment of lactose medium and preculturing of production medium with lactic acid bacteria which contribute for reduction of pollution resultant from dairy waste disposal.
  H.A. Murad , Sahar H. Mohamed , Asmaa G. Abu-El- Khair , E.A. Azab and Maha A. Khalil
  For improving the quality of the popular low fat Kariesh cheese it was manufactured from skimmed buffalo's milk supplemented with different concentrations ranged from 0.01-0.05% of xanthan gum as a fat replacer. The resultant cheese was microbiologically analyzed for Lactobacillus dlebreuckii ssp., L. bulgaricus, Streptococcus thermophilus on MRS agar and M17 agar, respectively at 37°C for 24 h. The total bacterial count was also determined at 37°C for 24 h. Chemical analysis was achieved for determination of fat, total nitrogen, ash and total solids as recommended by AOAC methods. The texture of the product was evaluated using the double compression test with addition of xanthan gum no alteration of microbial population was detected. The increase of cheese yield upon addition of 0.4 and 0.5% was not significant compared with the control. Textural characteristics including, hardness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness were increased for both the product and the control cheese up to 15 days storage period after that the hardness and cohesiveness were significantly decreased with increasing xanthan gum concentration. Kariesh cheese made with using 0.04 and 0.05% xanthan gum exhibited high acceptability compared with the control after 7 days of storage period. The addition of xanthan gum as a fat replacer upon manufacturing of Kariesh cheese enriched its flavor and improved its quality.
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