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Articles by Safinaz M. El- Shami
Total Records ( 2 ) for Safinaz M. El- Shami
  Mona El- Hamidi and Safinaz M. El- Shami
  Seven garlic extracts were prepared in different solvents. The extract yield ranged from 0.36 (n-hexane) to 71.73% water (H2O at 50°C), total phenolic content from 11.16 methanol/water (MeOH/H2O, 1:1) to 17.32 (H2O) mg GAE g–1 extract and antioxidant activity (DPPH) from 27.25 (H2O) to 16.39% (MeOH/H2O, 1:1) at concentration of 150 μg μL–1, whereas IC50 ranged from 0.27 (H2O) to 0.53 (MeOH/H2O, 1:1) mg mL–1 DPPH. The efficiency of Garlic Extracts (GE) and Garlic Powder (GP) were studied as antioxidants, in comparison with BHT, to stabilize sunflower oil (SFO) heated at frying temperature. Each GE and GP was added to SFO (0.1 g mL–1 of oil) and heated in a draft oven at 180°C for 15 h (3 h day–1). Similar heating test was carried out using legal limit of BHT at concentration of 200 ppm. The progress of lipid oxidation was measured in terms of Peroxide Value (PV), Acid Value (AV), Conjugated Dienes, (CD) and Conjugated Trienes (CT). The results of this study showed that GE and GP have inhibition effect on lipid oxidation. The reduction percent in peroxide values after using GE and GP as antioxidants ranged from 53.8 (SFO-H2O) to 73.2 (SFO-MeOH) approximately and the reduction percent in acid value ranged from about 6.8 (SFO-H2O) to 24.1 (SFO-MeOH) in comparison to about 7.7 and 34.2%, after 15 h, respectively, for SFO-BHT. Whereas, the reduction percent in CD and CT, after 15 h, ranged from about 21.6 (SFO-MeOH/H2O, 1:1) to 50.3 (SFO-GP) and from about 11.5 (SFO-MeOH/H2O, 1:1) to 22.2 (SFO-GP), respectively, in comparison to about 2.6 and 24.1, respectively, for SFO-BHT.
  Mona El- Hamidi , F.S. Taha , Safinaz M. El- Shami and Minar M.M. Hassanein
  Soybean oil (SBO) was miscella bleached in hexane using carbonized hulls of Jojoba (Jo), Jatrova (Ja), Peanuts (PN) and Pistachios (P) as alternatives to bleaching clays. Evaluation of bleached crude SBO with carbonized hulls was based on their delta-Free Fatty Acids (ΔFFA), reduction in Peroxide Value (PV), carotenoid content, color index and bleachability. Fuller’s Earth (FE) and Tonsil N (TN) were used for comparison with the carbonized hulls. Three oil: hexane ratios, 1: 0.5, 1:1 and 1:1.5 by volume and at Room Temperature (RT) and 50°C were used. It was found that oil hydrolysis during miscella bleaching and using seed hulls was very little in all treatments resulted in ΔFFA% between 2.65-3.12 at RT and 2.69-3.09 at 50°C compared to 3.29 ΔFFA% of crude SBO. The results proved that highest reduction in PV was achieved at 50°C and an oil to hexane ratio1:1.5 reaching 73.89 reduction percentage when using PN hulls. Also, Jo hulls resulted in more reduction in PV than FE under all conditions. Whereas Ja, PN and P gave more reduction percentage than TN in all cases. Concerning the effect, of using seed hulls in bleaching SBO, on carotenoid content the results showed that Jo and Ja gave the highest reduction in carotenoid content at oil to hexane ratio of 1:1 and at RT in comparison to the other hulls, TN and FE. Regression analysis indicate a polynomial correlation between the oil characteristics (ΔFFA%, reduction percentage in PV, carotenoid content and bleachability with the three oil: hexane ratios at the two temperatures, RT and 50°C, with r = 1. This study proved that miscella bleaching with carbonized hulls resulted in oils with less FFA, less PV and less carotenoids than the crude SBO. It also proved that it cannot act as a single bleaching agent by itself but it can be bleached with other clays.
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