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Articles by Saeed Ahmad
Total Records ( 6 ) for Saeed Ahmad
  Sana Ullah , Maryam Begum , Kuldeep Dhama , Saeed Ahmad , Said Hassan and Ibrar Alam
  The current study was aimed to investigate the genotoxic effect of an organophosphate pesticide malathion in the gills of a freshwater teleost rohu, Labeo rohita using alkaline Single Cell Gel Electrophoresis (SCGE)/comet assay. The 96 h LC50 of malathion was estimated for rohu in a semi-static system and was found to be 5 μg L–1. Specimens of rohu were exposed to LC50 of malathion. Gill tissues were sampled after 24, 48, 72 and 96 h of exposure. DNA damage was evaluated by studying different indices, including tail length (μm), percentage of DNA in tail, tail moment and olive tail moment using TriTek CometScoreTM. A linear relation was observed between exposure time and DNA damage in the gill cells. The current study revealed malathion as a potent inducer of DNA damage and comet assay as a reliable and sensitive assay for investigating and detecting DNA damage in vivo, induced in fish by genotoxic pesticides. In order to conserve the vanishing populations of rohu in natural aquatic bodies across the country, indiscriminate use of genotoxic pesticides such as malathion should be minimized.
  Abdul Jabbar Shah , Anwarul-Hassan Gilani , Hashim Muhammad Hanif , Saeed Ahmad , Sana Khalid and Ishfaq A. Bukhari
  This study was aimed to investigate mechanisms underlying the blood pressure lowering effect of the crude extract of Azadirachta indica (Ai.Cr) and its aqueous (Ai.Aq) and ethylacetate (Ai.EtAc) fractions. In normotensive anesthetized rats, Ai.Cr (1-30 mg kg-1) caused a dose-dependent fall in arterial pressure, Ai.Aq being more effective. In isolated rabbit aorta ring preparations, Ai.Cr inhibited phenylephrine (1 μM) and high K+ (80 mM) pre-contractions, with slightly higher potency against phenylephrine while Ai.EtAc was more potent against K+, similar to verapamil. The aqueous fraction was equipotent against both pre-contractions. Pre-treatment of aortic rings with Ai.Cr and both of its fractions shifted the Ca++ concentration-response curves to the right, similar to verapamil. In isolated rat aorta preparations, Ai.Cr and Ai.Aq exhibited endothelium-dependent L-NAME and atropine-sensitive and Ai.EtAc endothelium-independent vasorelaxation, similar to verapamil. Against high K+-pre-contractions, crude extract and Ai.EtAc were comparable in potency while, Ai.Aq was less potent. In isolated guinea-pig atrial preparations, crude extract and Ai.Aq were equipotent against both force and rate of contractions while Ai.EtAc was more potent against the rate. These data show that the crude extract of A. indica possesses vasodilator effect, mediated through Ca++ channel blockade and NO-dependent atropine-sensitive pathways along with cardiac depressant activity which possibly explain its blood pressure lowering effect.
  Sana Ullah , Maryam Begum , Saeed Ahmad and Kuldeep Dhama
  The current study was designed to determine the genotoxic effect of endosulfan at sublethal concentrations (66, 50 and 33% of LC50, 1.5 μg L–1) in peripheral blood erythrocytes of an economically important indigenous Indian major carp Mori, Cirrhinus mrigala . A total of 180 fish were divided into four groups, each group received 45 individuals. Group 1st served as control (received no endosulfan), while group 2nd (0.5 μg L–1), 3rd (0.75 μg L–1) and 4th (1 μg L–1) were exposed to endosulfan. For investigating the induced DNA damage, the blood samples were collected from the caudal veins of the fingerlings in all the groups after 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of endosulfan exposure. Endosulfan induced DNA damage in all the treated groups at all concentrations, in terms of percentage of damaged cell (% damage cell) and Genetic Damage Index (GDI) based on visual classification of the extent of damage (Class 0-4) and cumulative tail length (μm). A concentration and time dependent increase was observed in DNA damage in the exposed groups, the highest damage was observed in group 4th (1 μg L–1) followed by group 3rd (0.75 μg L–1). Similarly, the highest level of DNA damage was observed in peripheral blood erythrocytes sampled after 28 days, followed by 21 days after exposure. The current study displayed the severe genotoxic potential of endosulfan in Cirrhinus mrigala , even at sublethal concentrations. Therefore, the indiscriminate and injudicious use of endosulfan should be strictly monitored and banned or at least controlled by the responsible governmental authorities.
  Muhammad Altaf , Helen Stoeckli-Evans , Syeda Shahzadi Batool , Anvarhusein A. Isab , Saeed Ahmad , Muhammad Saleem , Shafique Ahmad Awan and Muhammad Ashraf Shaheen
  Mercury(II) complexes of pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate (PDTC) having the general formula [Hg(PDTC)X] (X = Cl-, SCN-, and CN-) and [Hg(PDTC)2] have been prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, IR, and NMR. The crystal structure of [Hg(PDTC)2] has also been determined by X-ray crystallography, showing that the complex is a centrosymmetric dimer, [Hg2(PDTC)4] (bis[µ2-(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamato-S,S')(pyrrolidinedithiocarbamato-S,S')mercury(II)]) (1). The solid-state structure of 1 contains two crystallographically equivalent Hg(II) centers in a distorted tetrahedron.
  Muhammad Ali , Ikram Ullah , Saeed Ahmad , Hayat Khan and Haji Akbar
  In Pakistan, especially in NWFP tallow is used as commercial deep-frying agent for the traditional fast foods chapli and Shami kebabs and is widely accepted for its color, flakiness, flavor and tenderness. The effect of 10 h continuous commercial kebab frying on the physiochemical parameters of the tallow was studied and evaluated. The tallow was evaluated for ash%, Peroxide Value, Optical Density, Conjugated Dienes, Conjugatet Ttrienes, %FFA, Acid Value and Anisidine Value after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 h of frying and the effect of frying kebab resulted in the increase of all these parameters. Results of the linear regression model suggest that frying kebabs have significant correlation with the oxidation of tallow and continuous frying for more than 10 h is not recommended. It is also concluded that kebab frying accelerate the thermal oxidation of the tallow. The results obtained in this experiment propose that POV can be adopted as the standard factor in the evaluation of oxidation of tallow used for the frying kebab and the upper limit will be determined as 28 meq/kg.
  Safdar Hussain , Muhammad Ahmad , Saeed Ahmad , Javaid Iqbal , Muhammad Nasir Subhani , Sajid Mahmood Nadeem , Sagheer Atta and Muhammad Ibrahim
  A field experiment was carried out at the Research area, College of Agriculture, Dera Ghazi Khan to measure the response of spring sowing sunflower to foliar application of abscisic acid (ABA) and potassium chloride under drought. In the experiment four irrigations by flooding (25 days after sowing, at bud initiation, at anthesis and at achene formation stage) were applied in control. Foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% KCl was made at anthesis stage of sunflower hybrids (NK-265 and SF-187) after skipping the irrigation. Foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% solution of KCl under drought at anthesis stage significantly increased achene yield and oil yield over skipping irrigation with no ABA and no KCl at anthesis stage. Sunflower hybrid NK-265 showed better drought tolerance compared with SF-187 with foliar application of ABA as well as KCl because it showed improvement in growth and yield. Sunflower hybrids NK-265 had significantly increased achene yield and oil yield than SF-187. Drought stress at anthesis stage to sunflower hybrids showed decrease in agronomic parameters and foliar application of ABA as well as KCl under water deficits improved them. ABA as well as KCl application to sunflower hybrids at anthesis under drought improved achene oil content but decreased achene protein content. Exogenous application of ABA or KCl to NK-265 under drought showed more percent increased in achene yield and oil yield than SF-187 over no ABA and no KCl application. Foliar application of ABA as well as KCl on leaf score at anthesis stage was non-significant. It is, therefore, suggested that foliar application of 2μM ABA and 1% solution of KCl under drought at anthesis stage significantly increased achene yield and oil yield over skipping irrigation, no ABA and no KCl at anthesis stage. Sunflower hybrid NK-265 showed better improvement of drought tolerance by foliar application of ABA as well as KCl than SF-187 because it showed more improvement in growth and yield.
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