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Articles by S.S. Siraj
Total Records ( 16 ) for S.S. Siraj
  L.A. Argungu , A. Christianus , S.M.N. Amin , S.K. Daud , S.S. Siraj and M. Aminur Rahman
  The presence of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus in Malaysia is at a deteriorating state. It is hardly a cultured species since the supply of seed is unavailable. This species is found in lowland streams, swamp and rice fields. Therefore, they are greatly exposed to factors such as intermittent periods of drought, devastation of the natural habitat and agro-chemicals. Presently, fish farmers are more into the culture of Clarias gariepinus. This threatened the mere existence of this indigenous C. batrachus. Hardiness, good growth, efficient food conversion and excellent nutritional profile guarantee C. batrachus as a suitable aquaculture candidate. Some conservation efforts were looked into in order to prevent the extinction of this potentially important catfish.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Induced ovulation of captive Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) often encounters low reproductive performances. The present study was conducted to gain insight to problems associated with poor breeding performance of Malaysian mahseer in captivity. In this study, sex steroid hormone levels and ovulation performance in filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) were investigated. Fishes were injected with ovatide, combination of Salmon Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogue (sGnRHa), DOM, sGnRHa+DOM and 0.9% NaCl. A total of 30 matured females T. tambroides with weight ranged from 2.01-3.80 kg were used in this study. The females were given ovaplant (39.5-37.3 μg kg-1) pretreatment for 6 weeks prior to hormones injection. Females were given a single intramuscular injection of ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), DOM (5 mg kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.+5 mg kg-1 b.wt.) or 0.9% NaCl. Blood samples were collected at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h (s) after injection. The effect of these treatments on sex steroids level (Testosterone (T) and 17β-Estradiol (E2) and ovulation performance of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. Result showed that higher ovulatory response was observed in the group treated with positive control ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.). Interestingly, it was observed that sGnRHa and Domperidone (DOM) produce highest egg and larval qualities compared to ovatide and sGnRHa alone. No ovulation occurred in the group treated with DOM alone. Sex steroids plasma concentration of T and E2 increased significantly in association with ovulation. The levels fluctuated and reached a peak at 12 h, then dropped dramatically at 24 Post Injection (PI). In contrast the non-ovulated groups, the sex steroids hormone concentration showed little increment after injection and rose at 12 h PI, then slowly dropped at 24 h pi. These results provide evidence for a strong dopamine inhibition on GtH secretion in captive mahseer.
  M. Hazmadi Zakaria , S.M.N. Amin , M. Aminur Rahman , M. Hatta Mahmud , A. Christianus , S.S. Siraj and A. Arshad
  The present study was carried out to investigate the embryonic and larval development of the endangered Temoleh, Probarbus jullieni in lab-rearing condition. The matured egg and sperm were collected by stripping the bloodstock of Temoleh fish after injecting with ovaprim hormone extract. The samples were collected from hatching tank at every 10 min interval for the first hour, 20 min for the second hour, 30 min for the third hour and then hourly interval up to hatching. After hatching, larvae were observed daily until the complete disappearance of the yolk sacs. The fertilized eggs were spherical, demersal, adhesive and brownish-yellow in colour with a mean diameter of 2316 μm. First cleavage occurred within 10 min post-fertilization at temperature ranged from 26.0 to 28.0°C. Hatching started 22 h post-fertilization and completed within 25 h at the same temperature. The yolk sac was completely absorbed 61 h after hatching. At the same time, the larvae started to swim actively and feed exogenously. This marks the first description on the early life history of P. jullieni. The present study will provide some valuable information on the ontogeny, breeding biology and early larval rearing protocol of P. jullieni which will ultimately be helpful towards the establishment of large scale seed production technique for conservation and aquaculture production.
  F.A. Adebiyi , S.S. Siraj , S.A. Harmin and A. Christianus
  The aim of this study was to characterize embryonic and larval developmental stages of the river catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus. Fertilized eggs were spherical, adhesive and demersal with a mean egg diameter of 1.5±0.3 mm. Seven embryonic periods were characterized for timing and features: zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula and hatching. Mean hatch was 23±1 h post fertilization at 27°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 3.0±0.2 mm in total length. Morphogenesis was completed in a day. The yolk sac was completely absorbed in three days. H. nemurus has a short embryonic developmental period in comparison with other catfish species. The information obtained from this study will be useful for egg incubation and larval rearing during the culture of H. nemurus.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Tor tambroides is an important and highly valued freshwater fish. In Malaysia, wild populations of this species has undergone declines in range and abundance due to degradation of their natural habitat. Due to economic important and concerns about their conservation, a culture artificial propagation programme was established to produced seed-stock for aquaculture and conservation purposes. The effectiveness of selected synthetic and non-synthetic commercial hormones was tested on filial 1 generation (F1) of Tor tambroides (Bleeker 1854) females in captivity. A total of 144 matured females were given intramuscular implantation of slow release hormone, Ovaplant (38.6-53.6 μg kg-1 b.wt.), for 5-6 weeks prior to induction. Selected commercial hormones were compared for the induction. The effect of these hormones on breeding performance and larval quality of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. The results showed that Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW) was the most reliable hormone in inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides females overshadowed the other tested hormones. Ovaprim (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was the next best tested hormone followed by a synthetic analogue of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sGnRHa/OvaRH) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.). No ovulation occurred in the groups treated with Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Analogue (LHRHa) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) (1000 μg kg-1 b.wt.) and Carp Pituitary Extract (CPE) (10 mg kg-1 b.wt.). Ovatide was further chosen to test its effectiveness at various dosage levels in inducing ovulation of T. tambroides. Thus, concentration of 0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of Ovatide was found to be the optimum dosage for inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides in captivity.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  The study was conducted to observed the embryonic development, morphology of eggs, newly hatched larve and post larval of the filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides using hatchery-reared specimens. The first cleavage occurred at 2 h after fertilization (HAF), epiboly began at 11 HAF, the embryonic body was formed at 22 HAF and hatched at 76 HAF. The mean total length of newly hatched larvae was 7.44±0.06 mm and almost has similar external features to other Tor species. The mouth and foregut opened at 7th Day after Hatching (DAH) with the mean total length of 12.8±0.11 mm. Tor tambroides reached 13.2±0.15 cm of total length and 31±0.53 g of body weight at 10 months of age. The induced ovulation technique using newly developed commercial synthetic hormone, Ovatide have paved the way for further development and improvement of culture production of the Malaysian mahseer.
  S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang and S.S. Siraj
  Age structure, growth, mortality and yield-per-recruit of Acetes indicus were examined in the coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia between February 2005 and January 2006. Monthly length frequency data were analyzed using FiSAT software for estimating population parameters, including asymptotic length (L), growth co-efficient (K) and exploitation rate (E) to assess the status of the stock. The L and K for males were estimated at 29.40 mm and 1.70 year-1 and for the females that were 42 mm and 1.20 years-1, respectively. The growth performance index (φ’) was calculated as 3.16 and 3.33 for males and females. The growth pattern of males and females showed positive allometric nature of growth (b>3, p<0.05). The maximum life span (tmax) of males and females was 1.76 and 2.50 years, respectively. Total mortality (Z) by length converted catch curve was estimated at 4.15 year-1 for males and 3.50 year-1 for females. The rate of natural mortality (M) for males and females was calculated as 2.65 and 1.91 year-1 and the fishing mortality (F) was 1.50 and 1.59 year-1 for males and females, respectively. The recruitment pattern of A. indicus was continuous throughout the year with two major peaks. The exploitation rate (E) of males was 0.36 and that of females was 0.45. The maximum allowable limit of exploitation (Emax) of males and females was 0.71 and 0.57 for the highest yield. The exploitation rates were less than the predicted Emax values of males and females. Thus, the stock of A. indicus was found to be under exploited in the investigated area.
  D. Aziz , S.S. Siraj , A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin and S.A. Harmin
  Genomic DNA of sergestid shrimp, Acetes japonicus was successfully extracted by using the Promega Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit. Population genetic characterization of A. japonicus along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia (state of Perak, Malacca and Kedah) was examined using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. Twenty oligonucleotides from operon A kit were used to screen the populations, of which 6 were able to be amplified (OPA03, OPA04, OPA07, OPA09, OPA10, OPA16). The percentages of polymorphic bands of the three populations investigated varied from 57.77 to 87.77%. Genetic distances between populations and cluster analysis from UPGMA grouped the populations into two major clusters. The Perak and Malacca populations were in one cluster, while the Kedah population was clustered by itself, indicating a different population. The genetic distance was highest as 0.0999 for the Kedah and the Malacca populations while lowest value was 0.0413 for the Perak and the Malacca populations, which probably have a closed ancestral relationship. The results of this study suggested that RAPD analysis, if carried out carefully and accurately would give a good indication of the separation between individuals of different populations and is suitable for identification of closely related genotypes.
  D. Aziz , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , J.M. Panandam and M.F. Othman
  Information on the genetic diversity of Penaeus monodon throughout its natural range in Malaysia is still limited even though it is a highly exploited species, thus this study was undertaken to genetically characterize the prawn populations. The P. monodon samples were randomly collected from Malaysian waters and were characterized using thirty polymorphic primer pairs which showed high level of polymorphism. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 36 with allele size ranging from 100 to 275 base pairs. The mean observed heterozygosity (0.5166) was less than the expected (0.5552), highly significant deficiencies in heterozygotes were detected in total inbreeding (FIS = 0.5500) and pair-wise genetic differentiation (FST = 0.6308) among the populations. Both the (χ2) chi-square and (G2) likelihood ratio tests detected significant differences (p<0.05) which showed a deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, indicating a probable inbreeding might have occurred in the populations. A Cluster analysis based on genetic distance revealed a fair genetic relationship among all the populations and the pattern was in accordance to the populations’ geographical origins. The highest genetic distance (0.7588) was observed between Lawas and Pulau Sayak populations while the lowest genetic distance (0.1191) was recorded between the Endau Rompin and Sedili populations. Various levels of genetic diversity of the P. monodon reported in this study indicated their genetic status in Malaysian waters and suitability for breeding and culture purposes. This information provides a basis for improvement through selective breeding and in the design of suitable management guidelines for this genetic material.
  B.P. Keong , S.S. Siraj , A.H. Sharr and M.S. Fauziah
  Population study focusing the genetic diversity had been widely exploited for wild species but unfortunately little attempt was being made to understand the dynamics of genetic diversity on cultured aquarium species. This study was carried out to understand the dynamics of genetic diversity of cultured live-bearer fish in Malaysia. Taxonomic groupings of both Xiphophorus and Poecilia spp was validated using molecular markers. One hundred and thirty one samples of locally cultured live-bearer fishes which comprised of Xiphophorus maculatus, Xiphophorus helleri, Poecilia reticulata and Poecilia latipinna were sampled. The live-bearer fish samples were genotyped with 24 microsatellite (SSRs) primer pairs. Fifteen out of 24 SSRs primer pairs were able to amplify among the live-bearer fishes and were polymorphic. The average number of alleles was low (1 to 8). Differences between mean observed (HO) and expected (He) heterozygosity for the four species live-bearer fishes were small ranging from 0.02 to 0.06 suggesting no drastic reduction of heterozygosity in cultured fish. The pair-wise comparisons of FST between these four species of live-bearer in general was high (FST>0.25). Such observation was expected as the four tested species of live-bearer belong to different taxonomic groups. A clear distinction between the species of Xiphophorus and Poecilia as revealed by SAHN-clustering tree plot seems to be in accordance with their taxonomy. The data generated from this study provide useful information in understanding the levels of genetic variation in cultured aquarium fish for resource management and conservation.
  B. P. Keong , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , J.M. Panandam and S.A. Harmin
  Inheritance of background body colour in molly, Poecilia is not well documented despite being an economically important aquarium fish. This study was attempted to understand the inheritance of background body colour between crosses of Poecilia latipinna (non-black) and Poecilia sphenops (black) through controlled breeding. A total of 13 breeding crosses which consist of two pure bred crosses, six parental hybrid crosses, two backcrosses, two test crosses and one full-sib cross were successfully initiated. In molly, Poecilia, non-black body colour is completely dominant over black and is not sex-linked. Multiple genes interaction which acted nonadditively was also found to be influencing this phenotypic trait. However, such interaction effect was restricted in crosses generated between genetically related fish (backcross and F2 full-sib) and was absent in crosses between distantly related fish (testcross). Perhaps, such occurrence was a natural mechanism to maintain the vibrancy of non-black colouration.
  M.F. Yusof , S.S. Siraj and S.K. Daud
  The study described the Length-Weight Relationship (LWR) of commercially important and indigenous freshwater catfishes from Peninsular Malaysia. Seven species of freshwater catfishes from three families (Bagriidae, Clariidae and Pangasidae) were collected from various rivers in Peninsular Malaysia. Allometric coefficient, b in LWR varied between 2.19 and 3.20. The LWR with high correlation coefficient (r2) is significant for all species except P. nasutus. The present study also documented first reference for Pangasius nasutus and Pseudomystus siamensis.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Natural spawning ground of most Malaysian streams are undergoing extreme changes as a result of human activities, pollution and climate change (extreme temperature fluctuation) which lead to dramatic decrease in mahseer (Tor tambroides, Cyprinidae) populations. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) alone or in combination with dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) on breeding performances of female breeders. Sixty females T. tambroides ranging in weight 2.01 to 3.96 kg while thirty males with average weight 1.38 to 1.72 kg were used in this study. The females were given pretreatment with Ovaplant (23.4-44.9 μg kg-1) for 6 weeks prior to induction. Females were tested with various treatments such as Ovatide, sGnRHa, sGnRHa+DOM and DOM. SGnRH analogue alone does not contain dopamine antagonist to block dopaminergic inhibition action. Females were given single intramuscular injection of Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 BW), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 BW+5 mg kg-1 BW) or DOM (5 mg kg-1 BW). The control group was administered with 0.9% NaCl. The fish did not spawn spontaneously but through hand stripping to release eggs. Results showed that Ovatide significantly produced highest ovulation rate, total stripped eggs and stripped fecundity. Interestingly, we observed that broodstock groups injected with sGnRHa+DOM produced highest fertilization, hatching and survival rates compared to other treatments. Good egg and larval quality were recorded in the group treated with sGnRHa+DOM. No females ovulated in the group receiving DOM alone and saline solution. The combination treatment was found to be more potent in inducing ovulation as compared to sGnRHa alone or DOM alone. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inhibition is a major barrier in inducing spontaneous spawning in captive mahseer and we successful produced progeny generation of T. tambroides larvae.
  N.M.R. Fazielawanie , S.S. Siraj , S.A. Harmin , M.Y. Ina-Salwany and N.S. Nik-Daud
  A study was conducted to develop and validate a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of plasmatic vtg in Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Highly specific polyclonal antibodies against purified vtg (antigen) were employed for quantifying the concentration of plasma vtg. The working ranges of the assay were 31.2 to 1000 ng mL-1 with the sensitivity of 6.9 ng mL-1. Antigen concentration of 250 ng mL-1 and antibody dilution of 1:1000 were selected as a workable ELISA after several preliminary test. The ELISA demonstrated precision with intra-and inter-assay Coefficient of Variations (CVs) at 90, 80 and 50% of binding were less than 8.4 (n = 9) and 12.1% (n = 5), respectively. Serial plasma dilutions from natural vitellogenic females and E2 treated were paralleled to the vtg standard curve (purified vtg) as analyzed by ANCOVA (p<0.05). No cross-reaction was observed in analyses of male’s plasma, indicating non-specific binding. The assay was validated by measuring plasma vtg levels in matured females and males (n = 5) obtained during the reproductive season in captive condition. Female’s plasma vtg ranges from 0.9 to 1.54 mg mL-1, while no vtg was detected in males plasma. Our results indicated that vtg levels proposed as an indicator for maturing female Asian sea bass, L. calcarifer as well as in female species from genus Lates.
  L.A. Argungu , A. Christianus , M.S.N. Amin , S.K. Daud and S.S. Siraj
  Malaysia is one of the countries in Asia with higher scarcity of Clarias batrachus. Consequently, to arrive at better ways of handling the situation the reproductive endocrinology of the species was investigated. Testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were the plasma sex steroid hormones monitored monthly throughout the reproductive cycles. Several peak levels were observed in the annual profiles of all the steroid hormones, implying that C. batrachus is a non-seasonal breeder, signifying that the species could spawn several times during the reproductive cycle. Most of the scholars who earlier worked on the breeding of this fish concentrated on a particular period (May to August) assuming that was the only season successful induced breeding of the species could be achieved. The present study has enhanced the understanding of the reproduction of C. batrachus. It has provided a platform for the optimization of reproduction and breeding program of the species.
  M. Hazmadi Zakaria , S.M.N. Amin , M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , A. Christianus and S.S. Siraj
  The freshwater fish, Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage), locally referred to as “Temoleh”, is a high-valued freshwater fish in Malaysia and has both cultural and conservational significance. It is widely distributed in the North-east Asian countries such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaysia. During the recent past, the natural stocks of P. jullieni have been decreased severely due to habitat degradation and man-induced hazards in aquatic ecosystem. Despite the vast research that has been conducted on various carp species, little attention has been given to P. jullieni. This study reviewed the published information on the status, distribution, reproduction and biodiversity of this commercially important fish species. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the species conservation and aquaculture development of the highly endangered P. jullieni.
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