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Articles by S.N. Ibe
Total Records ( 11 ) for S.N. Ibe
  A.H. Akinmutimi , E.O. Onyekwodiri , S.N. Ibe and O.C. Onwudike
  Feeding trial was conducted using 150 birds of day-old Anak broiler chicks, to assess the optimal level of quantitative replacement of soybean meal with raw sword bean meal in broiler diets. Thirty and Ten birds, respectively constitute a treatment and a replicate. Five experimental diets were formulated. Diet one was soybean based (control), while the test feedstuff quantitatively replaced 5, 10, 15 and 20% soy bean in diets 2, 3, 4 and 5, respectively. The birds were assigned to these diets; feed and water were given ad-libitum throughout the experiment. This experiment lasted for 28 days. Feeds given daily were recorded and feed intake and weight gain determined weekly. Data on carcass quality, organ weight, blood constituents and histopathology were obtained. They were subjected to analysis of variance and means were separated using New Duncan’s multiple range tests. There was significant (p<0.05) difference between the treatment means for all the parameters considered. Broiler chickens placed on the test-diets had severely hindered growth that was significantly (p<0.05) different from the results obtained from control diet. Feed-intake values were (43.3333, 31.8567, 25.5267, 19.0133, 16.7367), weight gain (20.3233, 14.4067, 10.34, 5.3933, 2.9990) and the feed conversion ratio (2.1367, 2.2033, 2.4467, 3.5700 and 5.6067). The gross margin of the control diet was higher (137.67) than the test diets (135.59, 106.61) (84.66, 66.88). Values of cut-parts showed significant differences in all parameters considered, with the birds placed on the control diet on the average performing better than others. Organ-weights showed significant (p<0.05) differences between the treatment means of the control diet and the test diets for all the parameters considered with the exception of the spleen. The values for heart intestine, proventriculus and gizzard followed no specific pattern that could be attributed to the effects of the diets, while the values for liver and kidney did. The liver values for the test diets became significantly higher than the control diet from diet 3 and above. The values for kidney for the test diets were numerically higher and became significantly (p<0.05) higher than the control diet for 15 and 20% diets. The principal effects of dietary raw sword bean on blood constituents were decreased RBC, abnormal MCH, MCV and MCHC when compared with normal range of haematological indices for broiler chickens. Also, there was increase in serum creatinine, alkaline-phosphatase and urea values. The inclusion of raw sword bean in the broiler chicken diets produce histopathological changes within the liver, kidney and spleen. Raw sword bean could not replace soybean meal quantitatively even at 5% dietary level of inclusion for starter broiler chickens.
  M.A. Oguike , G. Igboeli , S.N. Ibe and M. Uzoukwu
  Investigations were carried out to ascertain the effectiveness of some conventional restriction techniques on feather moult. The techniques used to induce moult, which were imposed for 10 days, were: natural day length with feed and water ad libitum, natural day length with water but no feed, natural day length with no feed and no water, reduced day length with feed and water ad libitum, reduced day length with water but no feed, reduced day length with no feed and no water designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively, with T1 as the control. A total of 60 old layers aged 85 weeks were randomly assigned to each treatment in a completely randomized design, with three replicates. After the 10 days of moult induction, all the moulting hens were returned to the same conditions as the control. The results of the study revealed that shedding of feathers began 10 days from the beginning of moult induction with the feathers of the moulting birds appearing ruffled. There were no regular patterns in the shedding of wing and body feathers. Also the shedding of the two wings occurred simultaneously. The duration of shedding of wing feathers by birds in T4 was significantly (P<0.05) longer than for the other groups, probably because of the severity of restriction of light, feed and water for T2, T3, T5 and T6. Shedding of primary and secondary wing feathers ranged from 7 to 51 days. The T4 showed significantly (P<0.05) lower % egg production than T2, T3, T5, T6, after feather moulting. Also the T4 attained peak production later than the other groups following induction of feather moult.
  M.A. Oguike , G. Igboeli and S.N. Ibe
  Influence of induced-moult on small ovarian follicles and egg production of old laying flock was investigated. Small follicles were graded thus: small yellow follicles (SYF), large white follicles (LWF) and small white follicles (SWF). A total of 360 old layers in their 64 weeks in lay were used in a 2x3 factorial arrangement in a Completely Randomized Design (CRD). The induced-moult treatments were natural day length with feed and water ad libitum, natural day length with water but no feed, natural day length with no feed and no water, reduced day length with feed and water ad libitum, reduced day length with water but no feed, reduced day length with no feed and no water, represented as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6, respectively. Each treatment was replicated 3 times with 20 hens per replicate. At the commencement of the experiment the numbers of the small follicles of the Control (T1) were 7.67 ± 0.88, 18.33 ± 0.88, 2121.67 ± 5.78, for small yellow, large white and small white follicles, respectively. The results showed that with the exception of T4, the numbers of all the small follicles of the rest of the induced-moult groups were significantly decreased (P< 0.05) by day 7 of moult induction. The numbers of the small follicles of T2, T3, T5 and T6 gradually increased and became Significantly higher (P< 0.05) than the control (T1) by day 49 of moult induction. By day 49, the numbers of the small follicles of the induced-moult hens ranged from 2500± 17.56 to 3670.00± 4.05 (SWF), 24.33±0.88 to 41.00± 0.58 (LWF) and 5.00± 0.58 to 6.67± 0.20 (SYF). The mean egg production of the flock was about 50 % prior to moult induction. The hen-day percent production of the moult groups ranged from 50 to 79 % whereas that of the unmoulted control ranged from 35 to 55 %. In conclusion, moulting initiated regeneration and rejuvenation of follicles. This in turn led to increase in post moult egg production of the induced-moult groups.
  Nwachukwu, E.N. , S.N. Ibe , K. Ejekwu and U.K. Oke
  A total of 216 day-old F1 chicks generated by main and reciprocal crossbreeding of normal local (NL), naked neck (Na) and frizzle (F) chickens with Arbor Acre broiler (E) breeder stock were used in the study. Mean day-old weights of the main crossbreds (ExNL, ExNa, and ExF) were 26.80, 26.00 and 26.50g, respectively and were significantly (P< 0.05) less than mean day-old weights of 30.10, 30.50 and 30.40g for reciprocal crossbreds (NLxE, NaxE, and FxE), respectively. These reciprocal crossbreds maintained their superiority in body weight, had higher feed intake and better feed conversion ratios till the end of experiment at 18 weeks. The linear body measurements (LBMs): body length, wing length, keel length, breast width except shank length were longer in the reciprocal crossbreds than in their main cross counterparts. The final range of body weights achieved in the main crossbreds (866.33 to 941.00g) and in the reciprocal crossbreds (1350.00 to 2150.00g) depict the main cross individuals as light birds which could be developed as egg-laying lines and the reciprocal crosses as heavy birds which could be developed as meat-type or dual purpose birds. In general, the performance of these crossbred chickens showed evidence of maternal influence with each group behaving like its dam-of-origin. The FxE individuals outperformed all other genetic groups with respect to body weight and linear body parameter development, thus indicating that the frizzle gene may be advantageous in producing fast growing chickens in the humid tropics.
  Nwachukwu, E.N. , S.N. Ibe and K. Ejekwu
  This study was designed to evaluate the effect of main and reciprocal crossbreeding on short term egg production and egg quality characteristics of crossbred Normal Local (NL), naked neck (Na) and frizzle chicken X exotic broiler breeder stock. Result showed that the main crossbreds (ExNL, ExNa and ExF) were significantly (p<0.05) lighter in body weight at sexual maturity (960.00, 812.50 and 1030.00 g), respecting than their reciprocal crossbred (NLxE, NaxE and FxE) counterparts with body weights of 1891.67, 1576.50 and 2072.00 g, respectively. The reciprocal crossbreds also had significantly heavier egg weight at first egg and greater egg number (90 days of lay). Shell thickness and yolk weight were not significantly different (p>0.05) in all genetic groups while egg length, yolk index, albumen weight and Haugh unit were significantly (p<0.05) higher for the reciprocal crossbreds. The frizzled individual in both crosses outperformed their normal feather and naked neck counterparts in body weight and most of the egg traits evaluated thus, indicating that the frizzling gene may be advantageous in poultry production in the humid tropics. Generally, reciprocal crossbreeding resulted in a more rapid improvement of the local chicken body weight, egg production and the egg quality traits studied.
  E.N. Nwachukwu , S.N. Ibe and C.U. Amadi
  This study reports the effect of genotype and frequency of semen collection on seminal traits of local chicken cocks. Semen was collected, using the back-lumbar massage method from Normal Feather (NOF), Naked Neck (NN), Frizzle (FR) and Naked Neck x Frizzle (NNxFR) cocks at two ejaculation frequencies, namely once and twice per week for nine weeks. Ejaculates were subjected to both physical and laboratory evaluations for quality. Results showed that there were significant (p<0.05) differences between the genotypes for semen volume with the NOF (0.15±0.009 mL) and NN x FR (0.13±0.013 mL) cocks having higher semen volumes than that of the NN (0.11±0.013 mL) and FR (0.08±0.013 mL) counterparts. Total spermatozoa was the only seminal trait significantly affected by the two frequencies of collection with once a week giving higher values than twice a week collection. Interaction effect was significant for sperm concentration and total spermatozoa. This effect was stronger when semen was harvested twice a week with the NN x FR and NOF cocks producing higher values. It was therefore concluded that NN x FR and NOF genotype were superior to their NN and FR counterparts in both semen output and frequency of semen collections and may be considered as potential candidates for use in natural mating and/or artificial insemination programmes aimed at improving the lot of the local chicken.
  U.K.Oke , S.N. Ibe , F.I. Ologbose and K.U. Amaefula
  The study investigated the effect of breed of sire on growth characteristics of exotic crossbred pigs in a humid tropical environment. Body weight and other body traits, namely Body Length (BL), Height at Withers (HTW), Heart Girth (HG) and Rear Girth (RG) were measured biweekly for three months (12 weeks) on 96 crossbred progeny of twelve Large White (LW) sows mated with three different breeds of sire, namely Large White, Hampshire (HS) and Duroc (DC) in the ration of 1:4. The data were subjected to Analysis of Variance appropriate for Completely Randomized Design (C.R.D.) and significant means were separated with Duncan’s New Multiple Range Test (DNMRT). There were significant (p<0.05) differences among the breeds of sire for BW, HG and RG at different ages. HS- sired progeny were superior to the progeny of the other breeds for most of the traits measured post weaning. The analysis shows that during pre-weaning phase, HS-sired progeny were superior in 48%, LW-sired progeny were superior in 40% and DC- sired in 12% in all the traits measured. HS Sired progeny were superior in 70% of all traits, while those of LW sires showed superiority in only 30% of the traits in the post-weaning phase. The Hampshire breed is recommended as the preferred sire breed for crossbreeding purposes to bring about genetic improvement in growth of pigs in a humid tropical environment. Regressions (R2) of body weights on Linear body measurement were all very highly significant (P<0.001) except at 70 days where R2 was poor (10.5%). The determined prediction equation shows that BL and RG could be effectively used to predict body weight of pigs.
  Ahamefule, F.O , J.A. Ibeawuchi and S.N. Ibe
  Twelve weaner bucks aged 5-6 months and averaging 10 kg in weight were randomly divided into 4 groups of 3 animals each and housed individually in cement floored pens. Four experimental diets A, B, C and D were formulated and randomly allocated to the 4 animal groups in a completely randomized design. The diets, compounded from cassava peel, palm kernel cake, brewers` dry grains, bone meal and common salt, contained 0, 10, 20 and 30% pigeon Pea Seed Meal (PSM), respectively. Each group received each diet for 61 days. Parameters measured were Average Daily Gain (ADG), Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR), cost per kg gain and dressing percent for the respective groups. Results showed that ADG differed significantly (p>0.05) among diets. The values were 46.81, 69.17, 87.85 and 98.05 g d 1 for diets A, B, C and D, respectively. FCR was least for goats fed diet D (4.61) and this did not differ significantly (p>0.05) from values obtained for goats fed diets B (6.43) and C (4.83); it however differed significantly (p<0.05) from 7.74 which was the corresponding value for goats fed diet A. Feed cost (N) per kilogram gain was similar (p>0.05) for groups fed diets A (104.68), B (105.74) and D (107.71) and these values were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the value obtained for the group fed diet C (94.61). Dressing Percentage (DP) also differed significantly (p<0.05) among treatment groups. Goats fed diets C (52.25) and D (52.63) had comparably higher values than those fed diets A (50.40) and B (50.63). Diet C promoted the cheapest lean and the greatest return on investment. The result of this study would highlight the benefits of rearing goat intensively and encourage goat fattening programmes even among subsistent farmers in our local environments in Nigeria.
  K.U. Amaefule , O.C. Onwudike , S.N. Ibe and S.F. Abasiekong
  Twenty-four (Landrace x Large white) weaner pigs with average live weight of 6.36 kg (6.25-6.50 kg) were used to evaluate the performance, cost benefit, carcass quality and organ characteristics of pigs fed high graded levels of brewers` dried grain (BDG) diets in the humid tropics. The diets contained 0, 30, 35 and 40% BDG in Treatments 1, 2, 3 and 4, respectively. The experiment was in a completely randomized design (CRD) with each treatment replicated three times. Live weight, weight gain, feed and protein intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) were measured. Other measurements were feed cost of weight gain, gross margin, warm dressed weight, carcass and organ characteristics. Results showed that weaner pigs fed 40% BDG diet had significantly (P< 0.05) higher protein intake (113.65 g) than others, while increasing levels of BDG in the diets significantly (P< 0.05) decreased feed cost at the weaner stage. At the grower stage, pigs fed 35% BDG diet had weight gain, FCR and PER values similar to those fed control diet, while BDG diets significantly affected back fat (1st rib) thickness, carcass length and percent spleen. It was concluded that weaner pigs could be fed 40% BDG diet to reduce feed cost, without adverse effect on growth performance. At the grower stage, the optimum inclusion level of BDG in the pig`s diet should be 35%, although 40% BDG diet could be fed to reduce feed cost without adverse effect on carcass quality and organ characteristics of the pigs.
  F.O. Ahamefule , J.A. Ibeawuchi and S.N. Ibe
  Four West African dwarf (WAD) bucks averaging 11.75 kg in weight and aged between 12-15 months were used to determine the nutrient intake and digestibility of pigeon pea-cassava peel based diets. The diets A, B, C and D were formulated (from cassava peel, palm kernel cake, brewers` dried grains, bone meal and common salt) to contain 0, 10, 20 and 30% pigeon pea seed meal (PSM), respectively. The diets were randomly allotted to the 4 animals in a 4x4 Latin square design. Parameters determined were feed intake, dry matter intake (DMI), nutrient digestibility and the nitrogen balance status of each animal. Also determined were metabolic faecal nitrogen (MFN), endogenous urinary nitrogen (EUN) and digestible crude protein (DCP) for maintenance. Results showed that incorporating PSM in cassava peel based diets generally enhanced intake in WAD goats. The dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP), crude fibre (CF) and energy digestibility coefficients (%) differed significantly (P< 0.05) among treatments. The values were 63.70, 51.27, 56.65, 64.78; 64.93, 57.85, 58.13, 65.39; 68.08, 61.95, 64.65, 69.42 and 71.20, 66.25, 64.27, 72.64 for diets A, B, C and D, respectively. Faecal nitrogen, nitrogen balance and apparent nitrogen digestibility values did not differ (P>0.05) but tended to increase from diets A-D as nitrogen intake increased. Nitrogen content of urine was affected by dietary treatments (P< 0.05). The values (g/d) were 0.74 for diet A, 0.79 for diet B and 0.80 and 0.82 for diets C and D, respectively. Metabolic faecal nitrogen (g/100gDM), endogenous urinary nitrogen (g/d/Wkg0.75) and digestible crude protein (g/d/Wkg0.75) values for maintenance were 0.19, 0.269, 1.50; 0.22, 0.031, 3.18; 025, 0.021, 4.87 and 0.34, 0.035 and 5.31 for the respective diets. The PSM fed bucks required 2.8 times as much DCP as the control fed bucks for maintenance. All diets promoted positive N-balance.
  K.U. Amaefule , S.N. Ibe , S.F. Abasiekong and O.C. Onwudike
  The response of weaner pigs to diets of different proportions and high levels of palm kernel meal (PKM) and brewers dried grain (BDG) in the humid tropics was determined with 24 hybrid (Landrace x Duroc) pigs whose initial live weights ranged from 8.08 to 8.21 kg (average 8.18 kg). The different proportions of PKM + BDG in the diets were 30 + 40% (T2), 35 + 35% (T3), and 40 + 30% (T4), respectively. PKM + BDG was 0% in T1 (control) and replaced maize in diets T2, T3 and T4. Growth performance and cost-benefit were evaluated at the weaner stage, while carcass and organ characteristics were added at the end of grower stage. Parameters measured were live weight, weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion ratio (FCR), protein efficiency ratio (PER), feed cost, feed cost of weight gain, gross margin, carcass and organ characteristics. Diets of different proportions of PKM and BDG significantly (P< 0.05) increased FCR and protein intake, significantly (P< 0.05) reduced cost of production and increased gross margin at the wea ner stage. At the grower stage, PKM+BDG diets significantly (P< 0.05) lowered final live weight, weight gain, PER and significantly (P< 0.05) increased FCR, feed and protein intake. The diets also significantly (P< 0.05) reduced total feed cost compared to the control diet and affected some carcass and organ characteristics without regular pattern. It was concluded that weaner and grower pigs could be fed diets containing 70% PKM + BDG (at various proportional combinations), replacing maize completely in the diets.
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