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Articles by S.M.N. Amin
Total Records ( 44 ) for S.M.N. Amin
  Roushon Ara , Aziz Arshad , S.M.N. Amin , A.G. Mazlan and M. Aminur Rahman
  Larval stage of marine fishes, habitat characteristics, nursery and feeding ecology has been discussed in this review. Identification of fish larvae is difficult and that is why limited research is available on biology of fish larvae in the Indo-Pacific coastal region. Estuaries play a vital role in energy transfer between a river and a sea, which is especially important for many commercial coastal fishes whose larvae and juveniles are dependent on the estuary as a nursery and feeding grounds. Many coral reef fish species use mangrove and seagrass beds as nursery habitats. Diet composition of the family Clupeidae were made up of seven major categories to include phytoplankton, plant-like matter, debris, fragment of copepod, algae and unidentified food items. The most predominant food item in the gut of clupeids was phytoplankton (82.53%).
  M.P.A. Muntaziana , S.M.N. Amin , M. Aminur Rahman , A.A. Rahim and K. Marimuthu
  Snakehead (Channa striatus) belonging to the Channidae family is an indigenous freshwater fish of Malaysia that has carnivorous behavior. C. striatus command high prices since it has a strong demand and are sold alive. It is a commercially important species in Thailand, Philippines, Cambodia and Vietnam. Increased human activities destroyed the feeding and breeding grounds of this species, leading to decline in wild catches. C. striatus is considered as an endangered fish in Bangladesh. The research of C. striatus provides an account of current knowledge, especially on reproduction, culture and nutritional requirement of snakehead. The problems encountered in snakehead culture are discussed and suggestions made to overcome the problems are highlighted.
  M. Hazmadi Zakaria , S.M.N. Amin , M. Aminur Rahman , M. Hatta Mahmud , A. Christianus , S.S. Siraj and A. Arshad
  The present study was carried out to investigate the embryonic and larval development of the endangered Temoleh, Probarbus jullieni in lab-rearing condition. The matured egg and sperm were collected by stripping the bloodstock of Temoleh fish after injecting with ovaprim hormone extract. The samples were collected from hatching tank at every 10 min interval for the first hour, 20 min for the second hour, 30 min for the third hour and then hourly interval up to hatching. After hatching, larvae were observed daily until the complete disappearance of the yolk sacs. The fertilized eggs were spherical, demersal, adhesive and brownish-yellow in colour with a mean diameter of 2316 μm. First cleavage occurred within 10 min post-fertilization at temperature ranged from 26.0 to 28.0°C. Hatching started 22 h post-fertilization and completed within 25 h at the same temperature. The yolk sac was completely absorbed 61 h after hatching. At the same time, the larvae started to swim actively and feed exogenously. This marks the first description on the early life history of P. jullieni. The present study will provide some valuable information on the ontogeny, breeding biology and early larval rearing protocol of P. jullieni which will ultimately be helpful towards the establishment of large scale seed production technique for conservation and aquaculture production.
  Aziz Arshad , S.M.N. Amin , Wan Nurul Izzah , D. Aziz and R. Ara
  Planktonic shrimp Acetes japonicus is found in the west of Peninsular Malaysia around the year. The study was conducted to observe the morphometric variation among the population of Acetes japonicus from four different sites along the coastal waters of Malacca, Penang and Perlis. Morphometric data of this species was analyzed using ANOVA and PRIMER software to investigate the degree of similarity among the populations of A. japonicus collected from four different sites (Malacca, Penang and two sides in Perlis) in the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The ANOVA showed that the mean difference of total length, standard length, carapace length and abdomen length amongst the four populations were highly significant (p<0.05). No significant difference was observed amongst the telson length of four populations (p>0.05). Dendrogram based on both sexes of morphometric characters showed three clusters amongst the populations. Sg. Berembang and Pantai Bersih populations were clustered in one group, Sg. Baharu population was in another group and both groups were well separated from the Klebang Besar population. The highest morphometric resemblance is observed between Sg. Berembang and Pantai Bersih populations which fall under the same group with a similarity of 99.67%. Analysis of variance showed that shrimp samples from the four sites differed significantly (p<0.05) based on morphometric characters.
  M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and Mariana Nor Shamsudin
  Nursery rearing of a high-valued threatened snakehead fish, Channa striatus was studied in relation to varying stocking densities in earthen ponds. The experiment was conducted for eight weeks in nine earthen nursery ponds having an area of 0.012 ha with an average depth of 0.8 m. Fry produced from natural propagation was first reared in indoor cemented cisterns with hatched Artemia cyst as live food for 10 days and then stocked at 150,000, 200,000 and 250,000 ha-1 in treatment-1 (T1), treatment-2 (T2) and treatment-3 (T3), respectively. At stocking, mean length and weight of fry was 1.17±0.18 cm and 0.15±0.03 g, respectively. Fry in all the experimental ponds were fed with a supplementary feed comprising of fish meal (50%) and mustard oil cake (50%) at the rate of 5-8% of the estimated body weight. In addition, chopped trash fishes were supplied at the rate of 5% of the estimated biomass daily, till harvest. The physicochemical parameters of water and plankton were monitored simultaneously and were within the acceptable range for fish culture. Growth parameters (final weight, final length, weight gain, length gain and specific growth rate) and survival of fingerlings were significantly higher in T1 than those in T2 and T3, respectively. Feed Conversion Ratio (FCR) was significantly lower in T1 followed by T2 and T3 in that order. Significantly higher survival of fingerlings was obtained in T1 than those in T2 and T3. Overall, highest growth and survival were obtained from T1 where stocking density of fry was 150,000 ha-1. Hence, of the treatments evaluated, stocking density of 150,000 fry ha-1 appears to be the most efficient stocking density for rearing of C. striatus fingerlings in earthen nursery ponds. This study represents the first successful attempt to produce fingerlings of the threatened C. striatus in nursery ponds, the findings of which might immensely be helpful towards the protection of snakehead from extinction as well as for its conservation, stock enhancement and rehabilitation.
  M. Aminur Rahman , Fatimah Md. Yusoff , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and Mariana Nor Shamsudin
  An attempt was undertaken to describe the size frequency distribution, length weight relationships and fecundity estimates of short-spined sea urchin, Salmacis sphaeroides from Peninsular Malaysia. In total 355 specimens of S. sphaeroides were collected from the inter-tidal shoal of Tanjung Kupang, Johor during the breeding season in March-August 2011. For each individual, the Total Length (TL) was measured using digital slide calipers and individual Body Weight (BW) was also taken through a digital balance. Mean length of S. sphaeroides was estimated as 72.85 mm and the mean weight was 143.01 g. Among the 355 specimens measured, 158 were males and 197 were females, indicating a sex ratio of 1 male to 1 female (1:1.25). The logarithmic form of length-weight relationship of S. sphaeroides was LogW = 2.4396xLogTL-2.3958. The exponential form of equation obtained for the length-weight relation was W = 0.004xTL2.4396. The value of regression co-efficient (R2) estimated for the species was 0.77. The mean fecundity was estimated at 7,676,000 (±247773) eggs. The regression coefficient between the absolute Fecundity (F) and Total Length (TL) was 0.76 and between the fecundity and drained body weight (DW) was 0.89; revealed linear regression model with a positive and significant relationship. This study represents the first time results on the total length-body weight relationships and fecundity estimates of this sea urchin from Peninsular Malaysia. The findings would immensely be helpful towards the understanding of growth patterns and fecundity, which will ultimately facilitate to develop the breeding, larval rearing and aquaculture of sea urchins.
  K.Z. Intan , A. Christianus , S.M.N. Amin and M. Muhamad Hatta
  The present study investigated the breeding and embryonic development of sebarau, Hampala macrolepidota from fertilization until early hatched. The matured eggs and sperm were obtained by induced breeding using a commercial hormone, ovaprim. Dosages given for female and male were 0.6 and 0.3 mL ovaprim kg-1 b.wt., respectively. Fertilized eggs were adhesive, spherical and sticky. Fecundity for females weighing 180-280 g ranged from 34,985-75,646 eggs/fish. Average diameter of the fertilized eggs ranged from 0.55±0.13-1.06±0.36 mm. Fertilization rates ranged from 18-28% after 24 h incubation. The observation on the embryonic development covers various stages from newly fertilized eggs, cell division, epiboly, somites until hatched.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and A.G. Mazlan
  Fish larval diversity is very important for management of the fisheries resources. Fish larval density, family richness, Shannon Wiener index and evenness were determined by analyzing samples collected from the seagrass-mangrove ecosystem of Gelang Patah, Johor Strait, Peninsular Malaysia between October 2007 and September 2008. Five stations were selected namely upper estuary (S1), middle estuary (S2), lower estuary (S3), seagrass beds (S4) and outside seagrass beds (S5). In total, 24 fish larval families were identified from the investigated area. Among them, 14 occurred in upper estuary, 17 in middle estuary, 16 in lower estuary, 20 in seagrass beds and 16 in outside seagrass beds. Overall five (Clupeidae, Blenniidae, Terapontidae, Gobiidae and Sillaginidae) were the most dominant in study areas. Shannon-Wiener index varied significantly within monsoon and intermonsoon seasons peaking in the months October-January and May-August. The highest density of larval fishes was recorded at seagrass station (S4) and the spatial variations in larval density were significant (p<0.05) between seagrass and other four sampling sides. None of the diversity indices showed significant among-stations except only family richness was significantly (p<0.05) higher in seagrass beds than upper estuary.
  B.I. Usman , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad and M. Aminur Rahman
  Despite the vast researches on catfish species in Malaysia, Plotosus canius, the grey- eel catfish which is primarily found throughout the coastal seas of Malaysia has been neglected. No single published work on aspects of biology, especially its reproductive biology is available. In this study, fecundity and egg size of P. canius from coastal waters of Kampong Telok, Malaysia were studied. A total of 32 gravid females were used in the study. The mean fecundity of the female having a length of 50.28 cm and a wet body weight of 680 g was estimated to be 865 eggs. Fecundity was found to show positive relationship with total length (r = 0.379), body weight (r = 0.494) and gonad weight(r = 0.336) but the values were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Egg diameter (mm) among the various length groups showed a polymodal distribution but the differences were statistically significant (p>0.05). This study being the first attempt to gather information of P. canius in Malaysia would form a basis for future works of this catfish.
  H.B. Fathi , M.S. Othman , A.G. Mazlan , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and K.D. Simon
  Trace metals (Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb) concentrations in muscles, livers and gills of three important marine fishes, Torpedo Scad (Megalaspis cordyla), Sea Catfish (Arius thalassinus) and Belangeri Croaker (Johnius belangeri) were studied using the Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The samples were collected from Mersing the eastern coastal waters of Peninsular Malaysia. The estimated ranges of Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb concentrations in the muscles, livers and gills of the three fish species were 1.51-3.48, 17.54-28.34, 0.02-0.12 and 0.12-0.15; 15.8-26.0, 80.58-365.1, 2.32-6.14 and 0.57-1.54; 3.04-5.51, 61.63-259.3, 0.03-0.12 and 0.14-2.03 μg g-1 dry weight, respectively. Metal concentrations in the edible parts of the fish were assessed for human consumption according to the Provisional Tolerable Weekly Intake (PTWI) and Provisional Tolerable Daily Intake (PTDI). Generally, levels of metal in muscles were lower than those in livers and gills. Zinc concentration was found to be the highest among the tested metals in all three species. The estimated weekly and daily intakes for the studied metals were far below the PTWI and PTDI limits. Present study reveals that consumption of these fishes from the study area does not pose a risk to human health.
  B.I. Usman , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad and M. Aminur Rahman
  Plotosus canius, the grey-eel catfish belonging to the family Plotosidae is endemic to the south-east Asia and Australia. Primarily the fish is found in marine environment but at times may be found in brackish or fresh water environments. Despite the vast research that have been conducted on various catfish species, both marine and freshwater; little attention has been paid to P. canius. This study reviewed published information on the distribution, biology and fisheries of this economically important fish species.
  L.A. Argungu , A. Christianus , S.M.N. Amin , S.K. Daud , S.S. Siraj and M. Aminur Rahman
  The presence of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus in Malaysia is at a deteriorating state. It is hardly a cultured species since the supply of seed is unavailable. This species is found in lowland streams, swamp and rice fields. Therefore, they are greatly exposed to factors such as intermittent periods of drought, devastation of the natural habitat and agro-chemicals. Presently, fish farmers are more into the culture of Clarias gariepinus. This threatened the mere existence of this indigenous C. batrachus. Hardiness, good growth, efficient food conversion and excellent nutritional profile guarantee C. batrachus as a suitable aquaculture candidate. Some conservation efforts were looked into in order to prevent the extinction of this potentially important catfish.
  M. Belal Hossain , S.M.N. Amin , M. Shamsuddin and M.H. Minar
  This study was carried out in greater Noakhali region (Lakshmipur, Noakhali and Feni) to evaluate the type of aqua-chemicals used in aquaculture activities where data were collected through questionnaire interview, Focus Group Discussion (FCD), personal contact with fish farmers, hatchery and nursery owner, farm workers. A variety of aqua drugs and chemicals including antibiotics have been using in the region by farmers for fish health management and increasing production. Aqua-chemicals were commonly used for pond preparation, disease control and treatment of the carps, tilapia, prawns and weed fishes. Carps show very positive results when they were treated against the diseases, Motile Aeromonas Septicaemia (MAS), Epizootic Ulcerative Syndrome (EUS), Saprolegniasis, Argulosis, Fin rot, Dropsy, Ichthyophthiriasis with oxytetracycline, potassium permanganate, sumithione, malachite green, dipterex, pillar sulfan, secofon, timsen, geolite and lime. The study also identified the problems associated with the use of chemicals which included lack of knowledge regarding the use of chemicals, appropriate dose, method of application and indiscriminate use of chemicals.
  A. Arshad , R. Ara , S.M.N. Amin and A.G. Mazlan
  Stomach content of fish larvae of family Terapontidae were studied in samples acquired from Merambong Shoal, south western part of Johor, Malaysia from December 2007 to September 2008. Larvae were collected by subsurface towing of a Bongo net. Stomachs were removed from a total of 117 Terapontidae specimens during the study period and the stomach contents were fully examined. Analyses of prey in the stomach showed 24 important food items belonging to six major groups viz., phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, plant-like matter, debris and unidentified matters. The predominant food items found in the stomach were phytoplankton (74.25%). This was followed by plant matters (8.02%), algae (6.69%), zooplankton (4.95%), debris (3/65%) and unidentified matters (2.45%). Among the food items, phytoplankton was the first rank by simple resultant index (74.25%). Therefore, it could be concluded that the fish larvae of family Terapontidae are mainly herbivorous.
  S.M. Al-Barwani , D. Aziz , S.M.N. Amin and A. Arshad
  Thirteen highly polymorphic microsatellite primer pairs developed for Perna viridis from the gene bank were tested on 3 populations of Perna perna samples with the aim to adapt a fast, reliable method for preliminary screening and to genetically characterize the wild populations of P. perna in the Oman waters. The samples were collected from three different locations viz Ras Al-Had, Ras Madrakah and Mirbat. All primers showed high level of polymorphism for all populations. The mean observed heterozygosity was lower than the expected heterozygosity across the three populations which means there was a probability of inbreeding occurred in the populations. Both the chi-square (χ2) and likelihood (G2) ratio tests detected significant differences (p<0.05), which showed deviations from Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Cluster analysis revealed a close genetic relationship of P. perna between all populations and they were clustered according to their geographical origins into two major groups which include one cluster that grouped the Mirbat and the Ras Madrakah populations together while the other cluster showed the Ras Al Had domain. The highest genetic distance (1.2666) was observed between the Mirbat and the Ras Al Had populations while the lowest genetic distance (0.4746) was recorded between the Mirbat and Ras Madrakah populations. This study demonstrated that microsatellite markers with thirteen P. viridis primer pairs tested can be applied to genetically characterize the brown mussel populations in Oman waters.
  S.M. Al-Barwani , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and J.S. Bujang
  Incidences of hermaphroditism in green mussels (Perna viridis) were determined in four different areas (Sebatu, Port Dickson, Muar and Johor Bahru) along the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia. In Sebatu, 1000 specimens of green mussels were used for the visual determination of sex ratios. The male:female visual ratio was 1:0.79. Three hundred and seventeen individuals were also sexually identified using histology technique. Male to female ratio was 1:1.01. Two hermaphrodite specimens were recorded during the months of June and September, 2004. In Port Dickson, 319 specimens were visually sex-determined, the male: female ratio was 1.00:0.86. One hundred forty one were also histologically identified. Male: female ratio was 1.00:0.96. There was no hermaphrodite specimen encountered in this population. For the population of Muar and Johor Bahru, the entire specimen’s numbers were visually sex-determined first and later confirmed by histological procedure. The male:female ratio was 0.72:1.00 and 1.00:0.95. No hermaphrodite specimen was found at either site. The pooled samples from different months showed no significant seasonal deviation in the sex ratio from a 1:1 ratio (Chi-square test, p>0.05).
  M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , Fatimah Md. Yusoff and S.M.N. Amin
  Potential for interspecific hybridization between genetically diverged species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. A (Ea) and Echinometra mathaei (Em) was examined through cross fertilization and hybrid rearing experiments. Mean performance traits of fertilization, larval survival, metamorphosis and recovery of juveniles Em (ova)xEa (sperm) and Ea (ova)xEm (sperm) hybrids were not significantly different from each other but were significantly lower than either of their conspecific control, EaxEa and EmxEm. Despite these, hybrids in both directions were developed normally to sexually mature adults. The growth parameters (final weight, weight gain, gonad weight, gonad index and SGR) of 2-year-old adult hybrids were significantly higher than the superior parent (EaxEa) and inferior parent (EmxEm). The gonad production showed an increment of 45.49% in F1 hybrids over mid-parents, while it showed an increase of 33.74%, 62.60% and 46.76% in F1 hybrid of EmxEa and 31.42, 59.79 and 44.22% in F1 hybrid of EaxEm over the superior, inferior and mid-parents, respectively. Survival was highest in EmxEm followed by EaxEa, EmxEa and EaxEm in that order. Therefore, body growth, gonad production and survival indicate hybrids in either direction were viable in laboratory conditions. The superiority of these growth traits of the hybrid groups over their parental values indicates positive heterosis (hybrid vigor). This study is the first successful demonstration of hybrid vigor between two diverged species of sea urchins. Hence hybrids in both directions appear to have considerable potential for use in aquaculture.
  R. Ara , S.M.N. Amin , A.G. Mazlan and A. Arshad
  Morphometric data of six dominant families of fish larvae were examined to observe the degree of similarity among the six families. The experiment was conducted in the seagrass-mangrove ecosystems of Gelang Patah, Johor Strait, Peninsular Malaysia. Samples of fish larvae were collected by using bongo net through 30 min subsurface tow. The six dominant families (Terapontidae, Gobiidae, Sillaginidae, Nemipteridae, Blenniidae and Leiognathidae) were selected for the morphometric analysis using one-way ANOVA by SPSS and PRIMER 5 software for cluster analysis. All the morphometric characters, total length, standard length, body depth, snout length, head length, eye diameter and pre anal length of the six dominant families of the order Perciformes were found to be significantly different (p<0.05). The study is formed a basis for further extensive research to be carried out on larval fishes in Malaysian waters.
  M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , K. Marimuthu , R. Ara and S.M.N. Amin
  Inter-specific hybrids have been produced to increase growth rate, improve productivity through hybrid vigor, transfer desirable traits, reduce unwanted reproduction through production of sterile fish, combine other valuable traits such as good flesh quality, disease resistance and increase environmental tolerances, better food conversion, take advantages of sexual dimorphism and increase harvesting rate in culture systems. Hybrids play a significant role for increase in aquaculture production of several species of freshwater and marine fishes; for example, hybrid catfish in Thailand, hybrid stripped bass in the USA, hybrid tilapia in Israel and hybrid characids in Venezuela. Despite its’ wide-spread use in aquaculture, there have been an impression that hybrids do not hold much attraction for aquaculturist. With the expansion of aquaculture sector and the increased number of species being bred and farmed, there are hybrids that now account for a substantial proportion of national aquaculture production and other hybrids may be emerging through further development. As the domestication of fish species increases, the possibilities to increase production through appropriate hybridization techniques is ongoing with a view to produce new hybrid fishes, especially in culture systems where sterile fish may be preferred because of the concern that fish may escape into the open freshwater, marine and coastal environment. Chromosome-set manipulation (polyploidization) has been combined with hybridization to increase the viability and to improve developmental stability of hybrid fishes. Intentional or accidental hybridization can lead to unexpected and undesirable results in hybrid progeny, such as reduced viability and growth performances, loss of color pattern and flesh quality and also raises risks to maintenance of genetic integrity of species if the hybrids escape to the natural habitat and undergo backcrosses with the parental species. The success of inter-specific hybridization can be variable and depend on the genetic structure, crossing patterns, gamete compatibility and gene flow patterns of the parental species. Appropriate knowledge on the genetic constitution of the broodstock, proper broodstock management and monitoring of the viability and fertility of the progeny of brood fishes is thus very crucial before initiating hybridization experiments. In addition, some non-generic factors such as weather conditions, culture systems, seasons and stresses associated with selecting, collecting, handling, breeding and rearing of broodstock and progeny may greatly influence hybridization success in a wide variety of freshwater and marine fin fishes.
  M.I.M. Faizul , M.M. Faizal , A. Christianus and S.M.N. Amin
  In order to develop suitable methods to successfully hatch Tachypleus gigas eggs, a study was carried out on different salinity and culture media. The main objective for this study was to determine the effect of watering frequency, salinity and media on the incubation period and hatching of T. gigas eggs. This research consisted of three experimental studies. In the first experiment, effect of water salinities (15, 20, 25 and 30 ppt) for watering or moistening sand was studied. For the second study, effect of watering frequencies (once in 1, 3 and 6 days) on the eggs incubated in sand were investigated. As for the last experiment, effect of incubation medium (water and sand) on eggs were compared. Data collected for these experiments were eggs diameter and hatching percentages. Embryonic developments were observed and photographed during the study period. Results from experiment 1, showed that at the end of the incubation period, watering with water salinity of 25-30 ppt produced significantly larger eggs diameter (p<0.05) while percentages of hatching was the highest with 30 ppt water. In experiment 2, it was found that percentages of hatching were significantly higher (p<0.05) when watered once a day and in three days. As for experiment 3, at the end of the incubation period, there was no significant different (p>0.05) in the eggs diameter and percentage of hatching between sand and water medium. In conclusion, the most suitable salinity and watering frequency were 25-30 ppt and once in 3 days, respectively. However, both sand and water are suitable media to successfully incubate T. gigas eggs. Overall, this study showed that T. gigas eggs can hatch as early as 40 days after fertilization.
  Muhammad Nouman Sohail , S.M.N. Amin and Idress Hamad Attitalla
  Interaction with animals provide necessary companionship and helps people to live better life by reducing risk of many health problems, improved fitness and act as a source of social enjoyment. In modern society there is a substantial increase in the number of dogs adopted as pet which also raises the concerns regarding the transmission of infections from dog to their owners and vice versa. Early diagnosis of infected dogs could prevent the owners from these infections. In last decade, PCR has proven its potential applications as an important diagnostic tool but these applications are mainly limited to the diagnosis of human diseases and very little work has been done on animals. Development of PCR assays for detection of commonly found canine fungal infections (aspergillosis, blastomycosis, coccidioidomycosis and cryptococcosis) is of utmost importance in order to ensure the early and accurate diagnosis of infection. Although, a lot of research is being done on molecular diagnosis of animal infectious disease but most of these newly developed assays are either not well optimized or only suitable for laboratory studies. On the basis of reviewed literature it can be concluded that more research work is required to develop an efficient (rapid, sensitive and cost effective) PCR assays for the diagnosis of canine fungal infections.
  S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad , J.S. Bujang and S.S. Siraj
  Age structure, growth, mortality and yield-per-recruit of Acetes indicus were examined in the coastal waters of Malacca, Peninsular Malaysia between February 2005 and January 2006. Monthly length frequency data were analyzed using FiSAT software for estimating population parameters, including asymptotic length (L), growth co-efficient (K) and exploitation rate (E) to assess the status of the stock. The L and K for males were estimated at 29.40 mm and 1.70 year-1 and for the females that were 42 mm and 1.20 years-1, respectively. The growth performance index (φ’) was calculated as 3.16 and 3.33 for males and females. The growth pattern of males and females showed positive allometric nature of growth (b>3, p<0.05). The maximum life span (tmax) of males and females was 1.76 and 2.50 years, respectively. Total mortality (Z) by length converted catch curve was estimated at 4.15 year-1 for males and 3.50 year-1 for females. The rate of natural mortality (M) for males and females was calculated as 2.65 and 1.91 year-1 and the fishing mortality (F) was 1.50 and 1.59 year-1 for males and females, respectively. The recruitment pattern of A. indicus was continuous throughout the year with two major peaks. The exploitation rate (E) of males was 0.36 and that of females was 0.45. The maximum allowable limit of exploitation (Emax) of males and females was 0.71 and 0.57 for the highest yield. The exploitation rates were less than the predicted Emax values of males and females. Thus, the stock of A. indicus was found to be under exploited in the investigated area.
  M.B. Hossain , S. Ahmed , M.F. Rahman , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , K.C.A. Jalal and S.M.N. Amin
  Liquid Chromatographic Mass Spectrometric System (LCMSMS) method was developed and validated in shrimp matrix for determination of nitrofuran metabolites in the laboratory of fish inspection and quality control, Department of Fisheries, Matshya Bhaban, Dhaka, Bangladesh. This confirmatory method was used for testing samples for residues of the metabolites of the following nitrofuran compounds, furazolidone (3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AOZ); furaltadone (5-methyl-morpholino-3-amino-2-oxazolidinone, AMOZ); nitrofurazone (semicarbazide, SEM) and nitrofurantoin (1-aminohydantoin, AHD) in shrimp. The data were generated (3 levels and seven replicates per level) on each of three days for shrimp. The mean recoveries from the tissues were 88-110%, the decision limits (CCα) were 0.12-0.23 ppb and the detection capabilities (CCα) 0.21-0.38 ppb. CCα and CCβ were calculated using the procedure set out in ISO Guide 11843. Nevertheless, CCα value for all nitrofuran metabolites can be investigated and meet the specified easily met the specified EU MRPL of 1 μg kg-1 ranged from 0.12-0.23 μg kg-1 and suitable for routine quality control operations.
  M. Parven , M.B. Hossain , M.F. Rahman , K.C.A. Jalal , N. Jahan and S.M.N. Amin
  Six months-long experiment was carried out in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University (BAU), Mymensingh from September 2008-February 2009 to evaluate the limnological parameters affecting monthly abundance of Chironomid larvae and their role in the diet of catfish, Clarias batrachus. The water-quality and soil parameters were monitored and found to be within suitable range for freshwater aquaculture. The composition of the benthic macro-invertebrates at the bottom indicated that Chironomidae was most dominant group in this pond. The body-weight percentage of the organisms showed that Chironomids and Oligochaetes were major two groups. The quantitative and qualitative studies of Chironomid larvae indicated that there was monthly variation in the abundance of Chironomids where Chironomus was most dominant. The highest (3585.19 m-2) and the lowest (548.15 m-2) abundance of Chironomids in 3 samples were recorded in the month of January 2009 and October 2008, respectively. Gut content analysis suggested that Chironomids was dominant food item in the diet of Clarias batrachus. The maximum 768 and minimum 25 occurrences were recorded in the months of December and October 2008, respectively in 5 fishes sampled from the experimental pond. The electivity indices suggested a shifting to Chironomid larvae from negative selection to positive selection in different months.
  A.A. Amani , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and N.A.A. Aziz
  A study was conducted for a 12-month period, from June 2008 to May 2009 based on the catch data to determine the catch composition of Set Bag Net (SBN) that is a type of fishing net laid down to catch Acetes shrimps that move along the estuary of Merbok River in the state of Kedah, Peninsular Malaysia. Bag net is a static traditional gear with a cod end mesh size measuring 0.5 cm. The results showed that total catches of the bag net over a year period were constituted of three major catch groups viz. Acetes shrimps (89%), juvenile fishes (9%) and other non-Acetes shrimps (2%). The annual mean percentage composition of sergestid shrimps comprised of A. japonicus, A. vulgaris and A. indicus were found to be 89, 7 and 4%, respectively. The gear is very selective and besides Acetes there was also a small proportion of fish juvenile being caught. Seven species of juvenile fishes were recorded throughout the catch period however; their mean total abundance was very low (9%). Penaeid shrimp was the only group of non-Acetes shrimp been recorded. Based on the analyzed catch composition data, it could be concluded that SBN is Acetes-selective and not causing significant great damage to the juvenile fish population inhabiting the study area.
  S.M.N. Amin , Aziz Arshad , Siti Shapor Siraj and Japar Sidik Bujang
  Five species of sergestid shrimps viz., Acetes indicus, Acetes japonicus, Acetes intermedius, Acetes vulgaris and Acetes serrulatus were identified from the different coastal region of Peninsular Malaysia and East Malaysia. Acetes indicus was recorded from the coastal waters of Klebang Besar in the state of Malacca and also in Kuala Gula Perak. The widely distributed shrimp A. japonicus was identified from the coastal waters of Klebang Besar (Malacca), Kuala Gula (Perak), Bagan Ajam (Pulau Pinang), Kuala Sala (Kedah) and Sungai Berembang (Perlis). Acetes intermedius was collected from the coastal waters of Klebang Besar (Malacca), Seberang Takir (Terengganu) and Bintulu (Sarawak). Acetes vulgaris and A. serrulatus were restricted to the coastal waters of Pontian and Kukup in southwestern Johor.
  S.Y. Oh , A. Arshad , S.B. Japar , A.A Nor Azwady and S.M.N. Amin
  Shrimps of the genus Acetes Milne-Edwards, 1980 are ecologically and commercially important. The diet composition of A. serrulatus were examined based on 370 specimens collected in the coastal waters of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia from April 2008 to April 2009. The food items in the gut of A. serrulatus were comprised of phytoplankton, zooplankton, plant matter, appendages of decapods, debris and unidentified fragments. Majority of the stomach sacs examined (88.72%) were filled up with food while only 11.28% were found empty. Based on the Simple Resultant Index (% Rs), appendages of decapod (31.87%) was found to be the primary food items, followed by plant matter (16.48%) and zooplankton (14.18%). Thus, it could be concluded that A. serrulatus is omnivorous and feed on phytoplankton, zooplankton and microcrustacean.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , L. Musa , S.M.N. Amin and P. Kuppan
  Studies on feeding habits and seasonal variation of diet of fish larvae of family Clupeidae was conducted from October 2007 to September 2008 in the estuary of Sg. Pendas, Gelang Patah, Johor, Malaysia. The diet composition were grouped into seven major categories consisted of phytoplankton, zooplankton, plant-like matter, debris, fragment of copepod, algae and unidentified food items. The most predominant food items in the gut of clupeids was phytoplankton (82.53%), followed by plant-like matter (7.34%), debris (4.86%), fragment of copepods (2.69%), algae (0.92%), unidentified items (0.77%) and zooplankton (0.54%).
  M.I. Mohamad Faizul , A. Christianus , S.M.N. Amin , S. Shafeeqa and T. Rishzuan
  Information on the growth of Tachypleus gigas is not well established as compared to its temperate counterpart Limulus polyphemus. Lack of documented study on T. gigas has further encouraged research on the growth and molting frequency under different culture methods. This report compares the size and weight increments and molting frequency of T. gigas larvae cultured using conventional (80-90% water change/day) and non-conventional (recirculating aqua culture system) methods. Size increment was measured based on prosomal width and weight increments of the larvae. Molting frequency was determined for the larvae from 6 to 11-month old. The larvae culture using these two methods molted 3 times during the culture period. Result of t-test showed that there was no significant differences (p>0.05) in the molting frequency of the larvae between the two methods. The final prosomal width for T. gigas larvae cultured using conventional method was 23.50 mm which is significantly (p<0.05) smaller as compared to 27.99 mm using non-conventional method. Similarly the final weight of the 11-month-old larvae cultured using conventional method was 0.61 g which is comparatively lower than those cultured under recirculating aqua culture system, 0.92 g. Water parameters (pH, salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and ammonia) for both systems were monitored and it was found that the conventional and non-conventional method of culture does not differ in salinity, temperature and pH except for dissolved oxygen (DO) and ammonia.
  I.S. Kamaruddin , A.S. Mustafa- Kamal , A. Christianus , S.K. Daud , S.M.N. Amin and L. Yu- Abit
  The Length-weight Relationship (LWR) and condition factor (K) of three most dominant species from the Tasik Kenyir was evaluated from February 2008 to January 2009. The data were analyzed by the equation of W = aLb and were transferred to Log10W = Log10 a + b Log10 L, for the length-weight relationship and K = W x 100 L-3 for the condition factor. The relative growth coefficient (b) values for Barbodes schwanenfeldii was 2.784, Notopterus sp. was 1.905 and Hampala macrolepidota was at 3.043. The condition factor values varied seasonally for each species that range from 2.48±0.39 to 2.68±0.28 for B. schwanenfeldii, 0.95±0.10 to 1.03±0.20 for Notopterus sp. and from 2.17±0.19 to 2.35±0.39 for H. macrolepidota.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin , S.K. Daud and A.G. Mazlan
  Temporal variation of fish larval density and composition between seagrass and outside seagrass beds of the southwestern Johor, Malaysia were investigated between October 2007 and September 2008. Fish larvae were sampled monthly by using a bongo net with 500 μm mesh size and 30 min sub-surface tow. In situ environmental variables were also recorded during the sampling works. The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families from the seagrass beds and 16 families recorded from the outside seagrass beds station. In total, 3738 larvae (2,801 from seagrass and 937 from non-seagrass area) were collected. Total larva density was at 79 individuals per 100 m3 and 34 individuals per 100 m3 for seagrass beds and outside seagrass station respectively. Larval abundance varied significantly within monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, with peaks in February-March and May-July. Top five families were Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Gobiidae, Sillaginidae and Terapontidae and they occurred consistently throughout the year. Larvae belonging to family Clupeidae (47.94% in seagrass and 42.03% in outside seagrass) and Terapontidae (17% in seagrass and 24% in outside seagrass) were the most abundant family in the study areas. The highest density of total larval fishes was recorded at the seagrass ecosystem. The spatial variations in larval density were not significantly (p>0.05) different between the seagrass beds and open sea station.
  Masitah Saini , Aziz Arshad , S.M.N. Amin and Mohd Hanafi Idris
  Growth, mortalities (natural and fishing) recruitment percentage and exploitation status of Acetes intermedius were examined of samples collected from the coastal waters of Bintulu, Sarawak between January and December 2009. Monthly length frequency data were analyzed using FiSAT software for estimating population parameters, including asymptotic length (L), growth co-efficient (K) and exploitation rate (E) to assess the status of the stock. The asymptotic length (L) and growth co-efficient (K) was estimated as 43.05 mm and 1.90 yr-1. The maximum life span (tmax) A. intermedius was estimated at 1.58 yr-1. Total mortality (Z) was estimated at 4.68 yr-1. The rate of natural mortality (M) and fishing mortality was calculated as 2.49 yr-1 and 2.195 yr-1, respectively. The recruitment pattern of A. intermedius was continuous throughout the year with two major peaks. The exploitation rate (E) was estimated at 0.47 during the study period. The exploitation rate was slightly below the optimum level of exploitation (E = 0.50) and the condition of the stock is still under-fishing status.
  A.A. Amani , S.M.N. Amin and A. Arshad
  The study on food and feeding habits of planktonic shrimp Acetes japonicus were done by examining the stomach contents of 164 specimens between June 2008 and May 2009. Samples were obtained from the bag net that was set along the bank of Tanjung Dawai estuary. Diet compositions of A. japonicus were grouped into eight major categories: phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, appendages of crustacean, plant matter, debris, unidentifiable items and sand and mud. Analysis on the percentage of numerical abundance (Ci) showed that plant matter (28.18%) and crustacean appendages (18.70%) as the two highest values amongst the eight categories of food items. In addition, percentage frequency of occurrence (Fpi) values of phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, plant matter, appendages of crustacean, debris, unidentified items and sand and mud were 3.54, 7.05, 5.07, 27.44, 17.42, 15.80, 8.94 and 19.81%, respectively. On the basis of food composition found in the stomach, it can be concluded that A. japonicus is omnivorous in feeding habit.
  Amani. A.A , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad and M. Aminur Rahman
  Population parameters of male and female A. japonicus were studied using the monthly length frequency data to evaluate the mortality rates and its exploitation level. The sex ratio (male: Female) was found at 1: 0.94. Asymptotic length (L∞) was 25.20 mm and 28.88 mm for male and female, respectively. Growth co-efficient (K) for males and females was estimated at 1.80 and 1.30 year-1, respectively. Total mortality (Z) was calculated at 5.98 and 4.44 year-1 for male and female of A. japonicus respectively. Natural mortality (M) was 2.82 and 2.19 year-1 for the male and female shrimps. The fishing mortality (F) was 3.16 year-1 for male and 2.25 year-1 for female. Exploitation level (E) for male and female of A. japonicus was calculated at 0.53 and 0.51. The exploitation level was slightly over (E>0.50) the optimum level of exploitation (p = 0.50). The stock of A. japonicus was found to be slightly over exploited in Tanjung Dawai estuarine waters.
  M.Z. Hazmadi , S.M.N. Amin , A. Arshad , M. Aminur Rahman and S.M. Al-Barwani
  Study on length-weight relationships of anchovy, Stolephorus tri collected from Benting Lintang (Lat. 5°44'33.62 N and Long. 102°39'22.84 E), the coastal waters of Besut, Terengganu was carried out on June and July 2010. Stolephorus tri are important component of marine ecosystems and commercially significant marine food resources in Malaysia. The mean size length of Stolephorus tri was 63.53 mm with a range of 51.0-76.0 mm. The average weight of Stolephorus tri was 1.57 g. The relationship between total length and body weight of Stolephorus tri was Log W = 3.0384 Log TL-5.2923 (W = 0.00001 TL3.0384). It is revealed that the exponent ‘b’ for Stolephorus tri was very close to the isometric value (b = 3). Therefore, the relative growth of Stolephorus tri was isometric in the coastal waters of Besut, Terengganu.
  M.P.A. Muntaziana , A. A. Rahim , S.A. Harmin and S.M.N. Amin
  The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of broodfish sex ratio on seed production of red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. using hapa nets suspended in an earthen pond. Sex ratios used in the experiment were 1:1 and 1:3 (male: female) with three replicates per treatment. Eight broodfish were placed in the hapa, each with a combination of either 4 male: 4 female or 2 male: 6 female to maintain the treatment sex ratios. Tilapia seeds (free swimming fry, sac-fry and eggs) were harvested every 21-day post-stocking. The broodfish were fed 3% of their body weight with a diet that contained 28% crude protein and 4% crude fat. Seed production of both sex ratio treatments were analyzed using the t-test. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in seed production and female broodfish performance between the two sex ratios tested.
  M. Belal Hossain , S.M.N. Amin , M. Asadujjaman and Sharmeen Rahman
  This study was carried out to describe the distribution and community pattern of benthic macrofauna collected from two nationally and internationally important islands, Hatiya and Nijhum Dweep in the period of January to June, 2010 using hand-held mud corer (10x10x10 cm) from seven stations. The coarser (order) level of taxonomic resolution was used to investigate the community attributes among the sampling stations. The study yielded a total of 10688.89 ind. m-2 macrofauna from all stations. Ten major taxa were identified from two islands and polychaete being the dominant. The average population density was 1526.98±1453.375 ind. m-2. There was a significant difference (p<0.05) in faunal density between Hatiya and Nijhum Dweep with later having higher mean density. The maximum (1.97) Shannon diversity index was found in St1 and the lowest (1.14) in St5. The highest similarity (76.6%) was found between St2 and St5. Multivariate analysis was conducted at order level of benthos using PRIMER. Bray-Curtis similarity measures among macrozoobenthic communities separated the stations into several cluster groups which was supported by nMDS ordination map.
  M.P.A. Muntaziana , S.M.N. Amin , M.S. Kamarudin and A.A. Rahim
  Twenty-five days feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the growth and survival of Channa striatus fry fed with three types of fresh foods (bloodworm, trash fish and Acetes shrimps). Ten fry were stocked in each aquarium (46x46x37 cm) and fed ad libitum twice a day (1000 and 1700 h). All treatments were triplicate. The fry fed trash fish showed a significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gain percentage (376.50±20.74%) than those fed with Acetes shrimp (233.05±10.18%) and bloodworm (199.08±17.25%). The final mean total lengths of fry fed with trash fish, bloodworm and Acetes shrimps were 7.91±0.23, 7.28±0.23 and 7.21±0.17 cm, respectively. Fry fed with trash fish also showed the best Specific Growth Rate (SGR) value (6.24±0.17% day-1) followed by Acetes shrimp (4.81±0.12% day-1) and bloodworm (4.33±0.22% day-1). The best Food Conversion Ratio (FCR) value (3.63±0.27) was found among fish fed with trash fish compared to those fed Acetes shrimp (7.41±0.88) and bloodworm (11.48±1.51). It could be concluded that trash fish was an excellent feed for C. striatus fry in term of growth, weight gain and FCR.
  Khalid Al-Hashmi , Adnan Al-Azri , Michel R. Claereboudt , Sergey Piontkovski and S.M.N. Amin
  Little is known about the physical, biological and chemical oceanographic conditions of Oman’s Avecenia marina dominated coastal mangrove ecosystem. This study provided information on the phytoplankton community structure and biomass (Chla) and their variability in relation to chemical and physical changes in the coastal mangrove ecosystem of Bandar Khyran Bay. Monthly assessments of phytoplankton and (chlorophyll a) accompanied by CTD and nutrient measurements were carried out at one station from January 2001 to December 2001, Chla were moderately low throughout in all probability due to the high water temperatures, low nutrient concentrations and high turbidity as well as the absence of diatoms in the phytoplankton community. The contribution of net phytoplankton >20 μm to total biomass was minimal throughout the study period except during December where it accounted for 53% of the total biomass. Phytoplankton populations within the size range of 0.74-<5 μm accounted for the highest biomass, followed by the size fraction (5-20 μm). A total of 25 net phytoplankton taxa were identified during the study. The overall composition of the community did not show any marked seasonal variations. The net plankton was dominated by a single species of dinoflagellate Peridinium quinquecorne Abe, 1927 throughout the year comprising more the 90% of the species counts where at times it reached bloom proportions. It has been hypothesized that ability of this species to thrive under a range of physical and chemical conditions allows it to survive and outcompete most other phytoplankton species including diatoms.
  Efrizal , A. Arshad , M.S. Kamarudin , C.R. Saad and S.M.N. Amin
  This study was carried out to observe and describe sexual dimorphism, reproductive system, macroscopic and histological gonad development and Gonado Somatic Index (GSI) of blue swimming crab (P. pelagicus) during post-spawning, spent spawner and berried female under laboratory conditions. The general sex dimorphism and reproductive system of male and female blue swimming crab were observed similar to be most other decapods crustaceans. The pubertal molt, the abdomen and gonopores of female show changes that are generally accepted as external morphological indications of sexual maturity. Unlike female, the males show prepubertal (loosing of the attachment of the abdominal flap to the cephalothorax) rather than pubertal molt. The ovaries and testes were classified into five and three development stages and the ovarian histology of each stage was characterized. The ovarian stages correlated closely with the Gonado Somatic Index (GSI), the characteristics of ovarian histology and oviposition period.
  M.M.R. Siddiquee , M.F. Rahman , N. Jahan , K.C.A. Jalal , S.M.N. Amin and A. Arshad
  The fingerlings of indigenous carps such as catla (Catla catla), rohu (Labeo rohita) and mrigal (Cirrhinus mrigala) with exotic carps such as silver carp (Hypophthalmichthys molitrix), bighead carp (Aristichthys nobilis) and mirror carp (Cyprinus carpio) were cultured together in a fish pond at Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh, in order to determine the food electivity, dietary overlap and food competition among indigenous major carps and exotic carps. Phytoplankton (Chlorophyceae, Cyanophyceae), zooplankton (rotifers) were the dominant groups in the cultured pond. Chlorophyceae was dominant in the diet of rohu. Chlorophyceae and rotifers were the preferred food of catla. Mrigal preferred phytoplankton than zooplankton. Rohu showed positive electivity for zooplankton. Silver carp consumed large quantity of phytoplankton and also preferred rotifers. Chlorophyceae was the dominant food group in the diet of bighead. Mirror carp also preferred plant food organisms dominated by Chlorophyceae. Bighead had positive trends towards phytoplankton. Both mrigal and mirror carp had positive electivity towards phytoplankton. The higher level of dietary overlap occurred between rohu and silver carp followed by between rohu and bighead carp and between catla and silver carp. The lowest level of dietary overlaps occurred between rohu and mirror carp.
  I. Johan , W.O. Wan Maznah , M. Mashhor , M.K. Abu Hena and S.M.N. Amin
  Investigation on copepod communities in Perai river estuary was conducted from November 2005 to May 2006. Five stations were established for monthly sampling and were located from the river mouth to the upper reaches of the river. Copepod samples were collected from vertical tows using a standard zooplankton net. The Perai river estuary was slightly stratified and salinity decreases significantly from the mouth of the river towards the upper reaches of the river. A total of 28 species of copepods were recorded and comprised of 14 families, Paracalanidae, Oithonidae, Corycaeidae, Acartiidae, Calanidae, Centropagidae, Eucalanidae, Pontellidae, Pseudodiaptomidae, Tortanidae, Ectinosomatidae, Euterpinidae, Clausidiidae and Cyclopidae. A total of 10 species showed high positive affiliation towards salinity (R>0.60), Acartia spinicauda, Euterpina acutifrons, Microsetella norvegica, Oithona nana, Oithona simplex, Paracalanus crassirostris, Paracalanus elegans, Paracalanus parvus, Pseudodiaptomus sp. and Hemicyclops sp. The copepod species Pseudodiaptomus dauglishi were negatively affiliated towards salinity (R = -0.71). The copepod assemblages classified into two distinct groups according to salinity regimes, euryhaline-polyhaline group (25 marine affiliated species) and oligohaline-mesohaline group (3 freshwater affiliated species).
  M.K. Abu Hena , S.M.S. Kohinoor , M.A.M. Siddique , J. Ismail , M.H. Idris and S.M.N. Amin
  Macrobenthos in coastal environment that play a significant role in the food web. It could also use as a good indicator of aquatic ecosystem health. The abundance and composition of macrobenthos in Bakkhali channel system, Cox’s Bazar were conducted in relation to the soil parameters. Samples were collected using Ekman Berge bottom grab from five different stations of Bakkhali channel. Macrobenthos were comprised of five major groups namely Polychaeta (9.96-30.31%), Oligochaeta (3.68-59.707%), Crustacea (0.02-58.40%), Bivalvia (1.40-82.09%) and Gastropoda (0.08-4.25%). Total number of macrobenthos was higher at station I (9000 individuals m-2) and station II (8517 individuals m-2) compared to other stations. Shannon diversity index among the stations ranged from 0.65-1.04. Soil pH and soil moisture ranged from 6.1-6.4 and 23.44-31.29%, respectively. The highest organic carbon concentration was observed at station I (2.11%) and lowest at station III (1.40%). Maximum fraction of sand by weight was found at stations II (81.88%) and III (87.88) while the highest fraction of clay (21.52%) and silt (8.0%) were recorded in station I. It was observed that benthic bivalves were positively correlated (r = 0.891, p>0.05) with silt fraction of the sediments.
  M. Hazmadi Zakaria , S.M.N. Amin , M. Aminur Rahman , A. Arshad , A. Christianus and S.S. Siraj
  The freshwater fish, Probarbus jullieni (Sauvage), locally referred to as “Temoleh”, is a high-valued freshwater fish in Malaysia and has both cultural and conservational significance. It is widely distributed in the North-east Asian countries such as Thailand, Cambodia, Vietnam and Malaysia. During the recent past, the natural stocks of P. jullieni have been decreased severely due to habitat degradation and man-induced hazards in aquatic ecosystem. Despite the vast research that has been conducted on various carp species, little attention has been given to P. jullieni. This study reviewed the published information on the status, distribution, reproduction and biodiversity of this commercially important fish species. The findings would greatly be helpful towards the species conservation and aquaculture development of the highly endangered P. jullieni.
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