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Articles by S.M. Mehdi
Total Records ( 7 ) for S.M. Mehdi
  M. Sadiq , G. Hassan , G.A. Chaudhry , N. Hussain , S.M. Mehdi and M. Jamil
  Amelioration of saline-sodic soil [EC=2.8 to 26.5 dSM-1, pH=9.10 to 9.73 and SAR=34.68 to 102.50 (m mol l-1)½] through land preparation methods (Cultivator, Rotavator and Disc plough) and subsequent application of Sulphuric acid (@ 20% of gypsum requirement) during crop growth was evaluated in a field study for two years at Jhottianwala site, Tehsil Pindi Bhattian, District, Hafizabad. It was observed that Disc plough was the most efficient field implement which not only ensured good yields but also enhanced soil improvement. Application of sulphuric acid also proved clearly useful by producing higher yields and promoting rapid soil improvement. The gradual enhancement of rice and wheat yields (grain and straw) and significant decrease in salinity parameters were recorded in this strategy within two years.
  S.M. Mehdi , N. Sajjad , M. Sarfraz , B.Y. Khalid , G. Hassan and M. Sadiq
  A field investigation was carried out to compare the efficiency of different phosphatic fertilizers in salt affected soils at three different locations. Sites First and 2nd were saline sodic having coarse texture (loamy sand) while site third was sodic in nature and have fine texture (clay loam).All the sites were low in organic matter contents and extractable K while available P was in medium range. The sources of phosphorus tested were single super phosphate (SSP), triple super phosphate (TSP), diammonium phosphate (DAP) and nitrophos (N/P).The rate of phosphorus applied was 110 kg P2O5 ha-1 from all the sources along with N and K @ 140 and 70 kg ha-1 respectively. The results showed that grain and straw yields were improved by the application of phosphorus over control from all the sources. All the sources remained at par with each other at all the sites except DAP at site three (sodic) where it was found inferior to other sources used i.e. SSP, TSP and N/P. Phosphorus concentration in grain and straw was found non significant in all the treatments. While phosphorus (P) uptake was significantly affected by the phosphatic fertilizers application. Maximum P uptake was recorded in the treatment where TSP was applied except in grain at Ist site and in straw at 3rd site where SSP proved better. However both the sources remained at par with each other. Nitrophos in case of grain remained at par with TSP and SSP while in case of straw it was significantly inferior to TSP and SSP. Diammonium phosphate (DAP) was proved an inferior source at site Ist and 3rd than TSP and SSP. However P uptake in all the sources was significantly higher than control.
  S.M. Mehdi , G. Abbas , M. Sarfraz , S.T. Abbas and G. Hassan
  A research study was carried out to see the effect of industrial effluents on mineral nutrition of rice and soil health. For this purpose a site was selected near the bank of nullah Dek at “Shakirabad” in the Distt. Sheikhupura. The water of this nullah is contaminated by industrial effluents carrying different mineral metals. This water was applied to rice crop growing at the site. Three fine rice varieties namely Super Basmati, Shaheen Basmati and Basmati 2000 were transplanted which were grown up to maturity. The system of layout was Randomized Complete Block Design with four replications. Paddy and straw yields data were recorded. Water samples were collected before transplanting of rice and during rice season after every fifteen days interval from 3rd August to first of November which were analysed for different mineral metals contents. After the harvest of rice crop, soil, paddy and straw samples were analysed for different mineral metals. The analysis of Nullah Dek water showed that its total salts concentration was higher than the safe limit (>1 EC d Sm–1). Even SAR of the nullah water is high but it has no problem of high RSC. Among mineral metals, Zn, Mn, Cd and Sr are present but these are within safe limit except Sr. Soil analysis before transplanting of rice showed that all these samples were free of salinity/sodicity hazards. Among mineral metals, the zinc ranged between deficiency limit (<0.5 mg kg–1) to adequate amount (>1.0 mg kg–1). Copper, Mn and Fe were present in adequate amounts at the sampled site. Strontium, Nickel and cadmium were within safe limits. After the harvest of rice crop there was a slight decrease in pHs, ECe and SAR at both the depths of experimental site. The decrease in pHs was noted < 1 unit. Like pHs and ECe, Sodium adsorption ratio also decreased. The contents of all mineral metals i.e. Zn, Cu, Fe, Mn, Pb, Ni, Cd and Sr after harvest of rice crop were further increased. The contents of these metals were higher in upper layer than the lower horizon. The increase in Zinc contents was up to< 0.5 mg kg–1 soil, the increase in Copper contents was < 0.1 mg kg–1 soil, Iron and manganese were increased up to 1 mg kg–1 soil, Cadmium, Nickel and Strontium were increased < 0.1 mg kg–1 soil. Lead was determined after harvest of rice crop only which ranged from 2.68 to 3.33 mg kg–1. There was maximum paddy and straw yield of Shaheen Basmati followed by basmati 2000 and least of super basmati. The chemical analysis of paddy and straw samples indicated that there was a sufficient accumulation of all the heavy metals in both the plant parts. The accumulation of zinc (1.60-1.68 mg kg–1), copper (0.93-1.13 mg kg–1), iron (3.15- 3.50 mg kg–1), manganese (1.83- 1.88 mg kg–1) and lead (2.89-2.95 mg kg–1) were noted in paddy of different varieties. Cadmium (0.125- 0.175 mg kg–1) and nickel was found in minute quantities (0.073- 0.093 mg kg–1). Strontium was noted in higher quantities at the site of the study. Its concentration ranged between 26.74 to 30.73 mg kg-. Rice straw was also analysed for heavy metal contents because it is used as fodder for animals in this area. It is indicated from the results that the rice straw also contains sufficient quantities of different metals. It contains zinc (27.75-30.0 mg kg–1), copper (18.0 – 19.50 mg kg- 1), iron (274- 279 mg kg–1), manganese (2.33- 2.43 mg kg-1), lead (1.23-1.24 mg kg-1). Cadmium (0.20- 0.35 mg kg-1) and nickel was found in minute quantities (1.162 to 1.195 mg kg–1. Strontium was noted in higher quantities. Its concentration ranged between 46.68 to 48.86 mg kg–1.
  Obaid- ur-Rehman , S.M. Mehdi , A.M. Ranjha and M. Sarfraz
  Field studies were conducted to arrest Phosphorus requirements of wheat, sorghum fodder and rice crops at 95% relative yield; Phosphorus Fertility Buildup Factor (PFBF) and level of phosphorus buildup in a Typic Camborthid (Sultanpur series) soil of rice tract of the Punjab, Pakistan. Sorption isotherms were constructed in the laboratory and data fitted into linear form of modified Freundlich Model and doses were computed against soil solution P levels. Different theoretical P doses were applied in the field to develop soil solution P level of 0.01, 0.02, 0.03, 0.04, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40 and 0.50 mg LG1 along with a control (native soil solution P). Phosphorus was also applied at the rate of 60 and 90 mg P2O5 kgG1 to subsequent sorghum fodder and rice crops, respectively. Wheat grain and straw, fresh sorghum fodder, rice paddy and straw yields were recorded at the harvest. Plant sampling was done at booting stage of wheat and rice and at the harvest of each crop. Soil sampling was also done at the harvest of each crop. The results indicated that maximum wheat grain yield was 4.05 mg haG1; sorghum fresh fodder yield was 43.83 mg haG1 and rice paddy yield was 4.43 mg haG1. Total P uptake by wheat, sorghum and rice was 22.73, 37.69 and 20.48 kg haG1, respectively. Mean phosphorus fertility build-up factor (mg P required to build 1 mg P kgG1 soil) was 16.23 and the level of P buildup (mg P kgG1 built-up in soil for each mg P kgG1 soil applied) was 0.062. Level of P depletion was 0.141 mg P kgG1 for NPK check plots while 0.162 mg P kgG1 for P check plots. Internal P requirement for wheat was 0.255% at booting stage and 0.281% for grain stage. For sorghum fodder, internal P requirement was 0.233% and for rice, it was 0.146% at booting stage and 0.266% for paddy stage.
  S.M. Mehdi , A.M.Ranjha , M.Sarfraz and G.Hassan
  The number of productive tillers plant-1, grain and straw yields in wheat were increased significantly by increasing K application except grain yield in the Wazirabad and the Sultanpur soil series and straw in the Kotli series which remained non-significant. K concentration in grain was improved by 100 mg K kg -1 except in the Sultanpur and Shahdara series where it increased upto 75 mg K kg-1. While in straw it was increased upto 75 mg K kg -1 rate except the kotli series where it improved upto 50 mg K kg -1. Potassium uptake by wheat crop was increased upto 50 mg K kg -1 except in the Pindorian and the Lyallpur soil series where it increased upto 75 mg K kg -1.
  S.M. Mehdi , M. Sarfraz , G. Shabbir and G. Abbas
  Saline sodic soils after reclamation become infertile due to leaching of most of the nutrients along with salts from the rooting medium. Microbes can play a vital role in the productivity improvement of such soils. In this study a saline sodic field having ECe 6.5 dS m-1, pHs 9.1 and gypsum requirement (GR) 3.5 tons acre-1 was reclaimed by applying gypsum at the rate of 100% GR. Rice and wheat crops were transplanted/sown for three consecutive years. Inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer was used with and without biofertilizers i.e., Biopower (Azospirillum) for rice and diazotroph inoculums for wheat. Nitrogen was applied at the rate of 0, 75% of recommended dose (RD), RD, 125% of RD and 150% of RD. Recommended dose of P without K was applied to all the plots. Biopower significantly improved Paddy and straw yield of rice over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. In case of wheat diazotroph inoculum improved grain and straw yield significantly over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. Among N fertilizer rates, RD + 25% additional N fertilizer was found to be the best dose for rice and wheat production in recently reclaimed soils. Nitrogen concentration and its uptake by paddy, grain and straw were also increased by biopower and diazotroph inoculum over inorganic nitrogenous fertilizer. Among N fertilizer rates, RD + 25% additional N fertilizer was found to be the best dose for nitrogen concentration and its uptake by paddy, grain and straw. Total soil N, available P and extractable K were increased while salinity/sodicity parameters were decreased with the passage of time. The productivity of the soil was improved more by biofertilizers over inorganic N fertilizers.
  S.M. Mehdi , M. Sarfraz , G.Hassan , A.B. Sufi and M.N. Bhutta
  An Investigation was carried out to note the survival and growth rate of eucalyptus saplings planted in salt affected and hypoxia areas with plastic container bags totally removed compared to base only removed. The soil used was highly saline sodic in nature with wide variation in electrical conductivity of the saturation extract (ECe), pHs and sodium adsorption rate (SAR) within the field. At Basti Thabal, Pindi Bhattian site half acre of eucalyptus was transplanted with bigger bags, half acre with original smaller bags and three and half kanals of eucalyptus were transplanted at Jalalpur Kangra. Survival rate data was collected fifteen days after transplanting of tree seedlings. While height and girth data was recorded within 15-25 days after transplantation. The results showed that survival rate of eucalyptus was more than 82% at Jalalpur Kangra while survival rate was more in smaller bags than bigger bags at Pindi Bhattian site. The treatment effect remained nonsignificant. The gain in height was more than 84 cm in case of bigger bags at Pindi Bhattian, more than 73 cm at Jalalpur Kangra and more than 47 cm incase of smaller bags at Pindi Bhattian site. However treatment effect remained nonsignificant at all the sites. The gain in girth was more than 1.20 cm at Jalalpur Kangra, 0.90 cm in case of bigger bags while more than 0.34 cm in case of smaller bags at Pindi Bhattian site. The treatment effect was again nonsignificant at all the sites. In case of root proliferation, tap root length was more at Jalalpur Kangra and Pindi Bhattian (bigger bags) while lateral root length was more in case of smaller bags at Pindi Bhattian site and treatment was observed nonsignificant. There was a slight improvement in ECe, pHs and SAR of soil in the plough layer only indicating that salts were leached down only at Jalalpur Kangra. While at Pindi Bhattian site the ECe, pHs and SAR were increased due to the eroded soil by rain that brought salt to this low lying area. The results lead to conclude that eucalyptus plantation in salt affected soils has some ameliorative effects on soil chemical characteristics.
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