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Articles by S.M. Hassan
Total Records ( 8 ) for S.M. Hassan
  S.M. Hassan , Y.M. Al-Yousef and C.A. Bailey
  Using guar meal in poultry nutrition is limited because of its anti-nutritional content. This study was set up to evaluate whether or not anti-nutritional compounds other than residual Guar Gum (GG) contribute to Guar Meal (GM) relatively poor feeding value for poultry. One hundred eighty one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 3 treatments with 4 replicates of 15 chicks each. Three dietary treatments were prepared in which the same dietary concentration of GG was supplemented to growing broilers as pure GG, GM or Guar Bean (GB). All diets were calculated to contain 1.35% GG. Chicks were assigned to one of the following treatments: (1) broiler diet reformulated with 3.85% GB, (2) broiler diet reformulated with 2.5% GM and (3) broiler diet with 1.35% GG. Feed consumption, body weight, b. wt. gain, feed conversion ratio and mortality rate were recorded at weekly intervals from 1-35 d. Total feed consumption recorded from 1-21 was significantly higher in chicks fed 3.85% GB versus those fed 1.35% GG. Total feed consumption from 22-35 and 1-35 day was significantly higher in chicks fed 3.85% GM than those fed 3.85% GB. The final b. wt. at 35 d for chicks fed 1.35% GG were significantly lower than both chicks fed 2.5% GM and 3.85% GB. Significantly higher weight gains in 35-days-old broilers fed both whole (ground) GB and GM versus GG suggest anti-nutritional factors other than GG are not major contributors limiting GM use in poultry feeds.
  S.M. Hassan
  Using natural product as growth promoter in poultry nutrition has lately been increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding dietary humate on productive performance of broiler chicks from 1-28 days of age. The 271 days old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 3 treatment groups with six replicates of 15 chicks each. Chicks were fed a starter broiler diet containing 0.0, 5.0, or 10.0 g humate kg-1 diet. Body weight at 14th day of age and body weight gain from 8-14 days of age for chicks fed 5.0 g humate were lighter than those fed 0.0 and 10.0 g humate. At 21st day of age, body weight for chicks fed 5.0 g humate were lower than those fed 0.0 g humate. From 22-28 days of age, the body weight gain of chicks fed 5.0 g humate was better than those fed 0.0 and 10.0 g humate. Final body weight at 28th day of age and body weight gain from 15-21 and 1- 28 days of age for chicks fed 10.0 g humate were lower than those fed 0.0 and 5.0 g humate. From 8-14 days of age, feed consumption of broiler chicks fed diet containing 5.0 g humate kg-1 was significantly lower than those fed diet containing 0.0 and 10.0 g humate kg-1. Feed consumption of chicks fed 5.0 g humate was higher than those fed 0.0 and 10.0 g humate from 22-28 days of age. However, feed consumption from 1-28 days of age for chicks fed 0.0 g humate was the lowest. Feed conversion ratio from 8-14 days of age for chicks fed 5.0 g humate was worse than those fed 10.0 g humate. From 15-21, 22-28 and 1-28 days of age, feed conversion ratio of chicks fed 10.0 g humate was the worst. Performance index from 15-21 and 22-28 days of age for chicks fed 10.0 g humate was significantly less than those fed 0.0 and 5.0 g humate. Results suggest that adding 5.0 or 10.0 g humate kg-1 into diet negatively affect the productive performance of broiler chicks in respect to feed conversion ratio and performance index.
  S.M. Hassan and A.A. Alaqil
  Using natural product in poultry nutrition has lately been increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding different dietary levels (0.0, 1.0, 2.0 and 4.0%) of Black Cumin Seed (BCS) on productive performance of layer hens over an 8-week trial period. Two hundred 52 week old Hysex laying hens with similar body weight and laying rate were randomly distributed among 4 treatments with 5 replicates with 10 hens each. Results showed that body weight gain for hens fed a layer diet containing 2.0% BCS was significantly lower than those fed 1.0% BCS. Feed consumption was significantly lower for hens fed a layer diet containing 4.0% BCS than those fed both 0.0 and 2.0% BCS. Feed conversion ratio was significantly better for hens fed a layer diet containing 4.0% BCS than those fed both 0.0 and 1.0% BCS. Egg weight per hen increased significantly for hens fed a layer diet containing 4.0% BCS compared to those fed 1.0% BCS. Hens fed a layer diet containing 2.0 and 4.0% BCS showed significantly darker egg yolk color than those fed both 0.0 and 1.0% BCS. It was concluded that adding BCS into layer diets up to 4.0% could improve the productive performance of laying hens in respect to feed consumption, feed conversion ratio and egg weight.
  S.M. Hassan and A.A. Al Aqil
  Using distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a feed ingredient in poultry nutrition has lately been increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding different dietary levels of DDGS on the productive performance of broiler chicks from 1 to 35 d of age. Two hundred forty one-d-old broiler chicks were randomly distributed among 3 treatment groups with eight replicates of 10 chicks each. Chicks were fed a broiler diet containing 0.0, 5.0, or 10.0% DDGS. Results obtained from the present study showed no significant differences in body weight, body weight gain, feed intake and mortality rate among dietary treatments from 1-35 d of age. Feed conversion ratio and performance index were significantly better for chicks fed diet containing 5.0% DDGS than those fed diet containing 0.0% DDGS from 8 to 14 d of age only, but were no differences between chicks fed 10.0% and those fed either 0.0 or 5.0% DDGS. These results indicated that adding 5.0% DDGS into broiler diets showed a beneficial effect on feed conversion ratio with the best performance index from 8-14 d of age. Therefore, results suggest that DDGS can be safely added into diet as an alternative source of protein and energy from 1 to 35 d of age up to 10.0% without negative effect on productive performance of broiler chicks.
  S.M. Hassan and A.A. Al Aqil
  To establish the optimum dietary calcium to available phosphorus ratio for the best productive performance and eggshell quality of layer hens, a total of 160 laying hens, 44-wk-old were used to study the effect of adding four different dietary ratios (13:1, 7.6:1, 5.17:1 and 3.87:1) of calcium to available phosphorus on the productive performance and eggshell quality of layer hens. Each treatment was replicated ten times with 4 hens each. Initial and final body weights, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, egg specific gravity, eggshell weight and eggshell thickness, eggshell percentage, eggshell weight per surface area Haugh unit and yolk colour were measured. The results obtained from the present study showed no significant differences among all the dietary calcium to available phosphorus ratios on body weight, egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio per egg mass, egg specific gravity, eggshell thickness, eggshell percentage, eggshell weight per surface area, Haugh unit and yolk colour for the entire experimental period (from 44 to 52 wk of age) of layer hen hens. Based on the results obtained from the present study, it was possible to conclude that the greatest calcium to available phosphorus ratio 13:1 (the highest calcium level, 4.29 and 0.33% the lowest available phosphorus level) was sufficient to maintain the productive performance and eggshell quality at the lowest cost of white egg layer hen from 44 to 52 wk of age.
  S.M. Hassan and A.A. Al Aqil
  Adding distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) as a feed ingredient in poultry diets has lately been increased. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of adding different dietary levels of DDGS on the productive performance of laying hens. Three hundred twenty with 30-week-old Hisex laying hens were randomly distributed among four dietary treatments with twenty replicates of four laying hens each. Laying hens were fed four iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous layer diets containing 0.0, 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0% DDGS for 12-week trial period from 30 to 42 weeks of age. Results obtained from the present study showed that there were no significant effects of adding either 0.0, 5.0, 10.0 or 20.0% DDGS into laying hen diets on egg production, egg weight, egg mass, feed consumption, feed conversion ratio per egg mass (kg feed/kg egg/hen), egg specific gravity, Haugh unit and egg yolk color. However, laying hens fed a diet containing 20% DDGS exhibited significantly the highest body weight loss compared to all the other dietary treatments. Therefore, it can be concluded that DDGS can be safely added into diets as an alternative source of protein and energy up to 20% without negative effects on productive performance characteristics of Hisex laying hens from 30 to 42 weeks of age.
  S.M. Hassan and A.A. Al Aqil
  To study the effects of adding date pits meal supplemented with beta-mannanase into diets on the productive performance and eggshell quality parameters, a total of 324 Hisex layer hens were randomly divided into 81 cages. Nine iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous experimental diets in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement including three levels of date pits meal (0, 5 and 10%) supplemented with three levels (0 or 330, 660 g of beta-mannanase/ton feed). Each dietary treatment was fed to 9 cages (4 birds/cage) for 8 weeks trail period after production peak from 45 to 53 weeks of age. Results showed significant (p<0.05) differences among treatments in feed consumption, feed conversion ratio, egg mass, egg production, eggshell weight, eggshell weight percentage, eggshell thickness and eggshell weight per surface area. It can be concluded that date pits meal could be partly added into diets as alternative feedstuffs up to 10% with supplementation of 660 g beta-mannanase/ton feed supplementation individually without negative effects on productive performance and eggshell quality characteristics of Hisex layer hen from 45 to 53 weeks of age. Further research on the effects of adding different levels of date pits meal supplemented with different levels of beta-mannanase at different ages on productive performance and eggshell quality parameters for layer hens are required to attain the optimal results.
  Elham A. Suleiman , M.T. Shigidi and S.M. Hassan
  In the Sudan, ticks and Tick-borne Diseases (TBDs) with subsequent costs of control and treatment are causing substantial economic loss. Control of ticks is mainly by chemical insecticides. The rising environmental hazards and problem of resistance has motivated research on biological agents as alternative methods of control. The present study aims at controlling livestock ticks using fungi for their unique mode of action besides their ability to adhere to the cuticle, to germinate and penetrate enzymatically. The study was conducted to evaluate the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae for tick control as an alternative mean to chemical acaricides. Pathogenicity of the fungus was tested on different developmental stages of the tick Hyalomma anatolicum. The fungus induced high mortality to flat immature stages. It, also, affected reproductive potential of the females. Egg laid, hatching percent, fertility and moulting percent of immature stages were significantly (p≤0.05) reduced. It was, also, shown that the fungus had ability to adhere to the cuticle and penetrate the integument of the tick. Conidia of the fungus were isolated from their internal tissues. This phenomenon is important in considering fungi as bioinsecticides. Infection of eggs laid by treated engorged female ticks, with the fungus might demonstrate suggesting transovarian transmission. The use of M. anisopliae to control ticks is discussed.
 
 
 
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