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Articles by S.M. El-Bahr
Total Records ( 12 ) for S.M. El-Bahr
  I.B. Ismail , K.A. Al-Busadah and S.M. El-Bahr
  Dietary manipulation of heat induced oxidative stress is one of the most widely used method to alleviate the negative effect of heat stress. The combination of two or more potential antioxidants are known to protect against heat stress. Therefore, 200 day old broiler chicks were raised under hot climate to determine the effect of ascorbic acid and zinc bacitracin and their combination as antioxidants. Birds were divided into four treatments; the first treatment (T1), the control was provided with basal diet. Second (T2) and third (T3) treatments were provided with 1 g ascorbic acid and 100 mg zinc bacitracin per kg basal diet, respectively. The fourth treatment (T4) was provided with a combination of T2 and T3 for 42 days. Performance parameters were reported every fortnight. Blood samples were collected every fortnight and the harvested sera were used to determine oxidative stress biomarkers. Ascorbic acid and zinc bacitracin were safe for heat stressed birds since the liver and kidney function indicators were not changed. Ascorbic acid and zinc bacitracin lowered lipid peroxidation level (Malondialdehyde; MDA) and increased the activity of catalase (CAT), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and Super Oxide Dismutase (SOD) whereas, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity remained unchanged in all treatments. Serum ascorbic acid concentration was significantly (p<0.05) increased accompanied with hypocholesterolemia in heat stressed broilers receiving ascorbic acid compared to the control. Performance parameters were not influenced by feed additives. In conclusion, ascorbic acid was more potent than zinc bacitracin and their combination in increasing the level of enzymatic and non enzymatic antioxidants.
  W.M. El-Deeb and S.M. El-Bahr
  Background: Oxidative stress biomarkers and lipid profiles were used successfully as prognostic and diagnostic biomarkers of many animal diseases. However, their use in the diagnosis of ketosis in dairy cows at post-paturient period is not completely elucidated. Materials and Methods: Therefore, 25 cows suffered from ketosis at post-paturient period were used in the current study together with 20 healthy cows who served as a control. Blood samples were collected from diseased and healthy animals and the harvested serum were used for determination of oxidative stress biomarkers and the profiles of lipids, protein and enzymes. Results: The obtained results declared that, there was a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT), non-esterified free fatty acids (NEFA), β-hydroxylbutyric acids (BHBA), malonaldehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in dairy cows affected with ketosis compared to control. Conversely, a significant (p≤0.05) decrease in the levels of glucose, total cholesterol, cholesterol ester, free cholesterol, triacylglycerol (TAG), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were detected in diseased cows compared to control. Serum BHBA, NEFA, MDA and NO levels were positively correlated with each other’s and inversely correlated with activity of SOD and GSH concentration in cows affected with ketosis. Conclusion: Oxidative stress biomarkers and lipid profiles could be used as promising biomarkers for ketosis in dairy cows at post-paturient period. The antioxidant therapy may useful in the treatment of ketosis in cows at post-paturient period.
  S.M. El-Bahr , W.M. El-Deeb and Aml S. Hashem
  Background and Objective: The investigation of antioxidant effect of fenugreek at molecular level in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) are not completely elucidated. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of aqueous extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) against CCl4 hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods: Twenty four rats were allocated into four groups. Rats in groups 1-4 were injected with paraffin oil (control), subjected to oral administration of aqueous extract of fenugreek, injected with CCl4 diluted with paraffin oil 1:1 (1 mL kg–1 b.wt.) for 2 executive days and a combination of group 2 and 3, respectively. Results: Liver injury and oxidative stress were observed in untreated CCl4-intoxicated rats as reflected on histopathological picture, increase in hepatic transaminases, increase in lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, TBARS), decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) concentration, decrease in the activities of antioxidant enzymes namely catalase (CAT), total superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-s-transferase (GST) as well as down-regulation of gene expression of these enzymes compared to control. Administration of aqueous extract of fenugreek attenuated the detrimental effects of CCl4 via an up-regulation of gene expression and activities of antioxidant enzymes with increase in GSH concentration. Conclusion: Aqueous extract of fenugreek ameliorated CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Aqueous extract of fenugreek exerted its protective effect against CCl4-induced toxicity by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and enhancing the antioxidant defence system at the activity and gene expression levels.
  S.M. El-Bahr
  The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of camel milk on activities and gene expression of hepatic antioxidant enzymes in rats intoxicated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Therefore, twenty four rats were used in the current study. Rats were divided into four groups, the first and second groups were received water and camel's milk, respectively whereas rats of both third and fourth groups were injected with CCl4 and received water and camel's milk, respectively. After 5 weeks, liver tissues were collected for biochemical analysis of the activities and gene expression of antioxidant enzymes. Rats supplemented with camel milk alone showed no significant difference in all examined parameters compared to control rats. Liver damage and oxidative stress were evident in untreated CCl4 intoxicated rats as indicated by significant elevation of hepatic enzymes, significant elevation in thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS), significant reduction in reduced glutathione level (GSH), significant reduction in the activities of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione-S transferase (GST) and finally significant down-regulation of antioxidant enzymes gene expression compare to control. Administration of camel milk along with CCl4 caused amelioration in CCl4-induced effects compare to the untreated CCl4 intoxicated rats via up-regulation of antioxidant enzyme gene expression, activation of the expressed genes and increasing the availability of GSH. Conclusively, camel milk exerted its protective effect against CCl4 induced hepatic toxicity by modulating the extent of lipid peroxidation and augmenting antioxidant defense system at activity and gene expression levels.
  I.B. Ismail , K.A. Al-Busadah and S.M. El-Bahr
  Production of eggs of low cholesterol level is a prerequisite of modern studies to provide healthy food for human consumption. The present study was performed to assess the effect of canola oil (1 and 2%) on egg production, egg quality and biochemistry of plasma and egg yolk of laying hen. To achieve this goal, 75 hens (hisex, 26 weeks old) were divided into three treatments (25 hens for each) of 5 replicates (5 hens for each). In the first treatment, hens were fed basal diet free of canola whereas 1 and 2% canola oil were incorporated in the second and third treatment, respectively for eight weeks and all data were recorded on 4 and week 8 of the experiment. The current study revealed insignificant difference in feed intake, feed conversion ratio, egg production, egg weight, shell thickness, haugh units and egg yolk color among treatment groups. Plasma triacylglycerol and cholesterol values reduced significantly (p<0.05) in layers fed diet supplemented with canola oil after 8 weeks compare to control. Egg cholesterol values were reduced significantly (p<0.05) in eggs produced by hens supplemented with both concentrations of canola oil for 4 and 8 week compare to control. Liver and kidney function were not affected in all treatments throughout the study. Based on the current results, inclusions of 1% canola oil in layers diet were quiet enough to reduce plasma and egg cholesterol. These results open new perspectives on economy of poultry industry for production of healthy food (egg) for human consumption.
  S.M. El-Bahr and I.F. Albokhadaim
  The present study aimed to investigate the extent of stability of glucocorticoids against the bacterial actions and their enzymatic activities that are naturally occurring in faeces. Faecal samples were freshly collected from each of 10 cattle and 10 sheep. Each sample was immediately incubated in a water bath at 38°C with either 1 μg of cortisol or corticosterone. The incubations were then run at time intervals of 4, 8 and 24 h (in cattle) and at 1, 2, 4, 8 and 24 h (in sheep). The samples were extracted with methanol and the aliquots were taken after centrifugation from their supernatants and analyzed for measurement of cortisol and corticosterone by enzyme immunoassays (EIAs). A dramatical decline in the concentrations of the added cortisol and corticosterone was observed in cattle faeces. Only about 20% of the starting levels of both hormones after 4 h in contrast to almost no cortisol with about 10% of corticosterone after 8 h and about 5% of corticosterone after 24 h was detected. Prolonged incubation of faecal samples of sheep decreased the immunoreactive substances measured by the 3α-hydroxy,11-oxoandrogens EIA (11-oxo-A- EIA), whereas with the 11,17 dioxoandrotanes EIA (11,17 DOA-EIA), the values were increased. Cortisol was heavily metabolized by faecal flora being quicker in its metabolism than corticosterone in the faeces of ruminants. In addition, the present study provides a powerful evidence for the absence of native cortisol in the faeces of ruminants.
  S.I. Al-Sultan and S.M. El-Bahr
  The objective of the current study was to investigate the protective effects of aqueous extract of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum L.) against carbon tetrachloride (CCl4), induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Therefore, twenty rats were fed standard diet and divided into four groups. Rats in the first and second groups were injected i/p with paraffin oil and received either tap water (control 1) or aqueous extract of fenugreek (control 2), respectively. Rats in the third and fourth groups were injected i/p with CCl4 and received either tap water or aqueous extract of fenugreek, respectively. At the end of the experiment (5 weeks), blood and liver samples were collected. Sera were used for selected biochIical analysis and liver tissues were used for estimation of selected oxidative stress biomarkers. The present findings revealed that, CCl4 elevated serum transaminases, hepatic lipid peroxidation and hepatic enzymatic antioxidants activities. Oral fenugreek aqueous extract ameliorated the detrimental effects of CCl4 and corrected all examined biomarkers toward the control values. The present study concluded that aqueous extract of fenugreek plays a protective role against CCl4-induced liver damages in rats. These protective effects were in the form of improvIent of serum transaminases, attenuation of hepatic lipid peroxidation and activation of hepatic antioxidant enzymes.
  B. Elmahdi , M.A. Al-Omair , A.A. El-Bessoumy and S.M. El-Bahr
  The stimulation of oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation by acrylamide has been extensively documented. However, the effect of acrylamide on glycolytic enzymes has not been completely elucidated. The present study investigated the effect of acrylamide exposure on activities of serum and hepatic glycolytic enzymes namely, pyruvate kinase, glyceraldhyde-3-phoshate dehydrogenase, phosphofructokinase, hexokinase and α-glucosidase in rabbits. In addition, the protective effect of garlic (Allium sativum) against acrylamide toxicity as reflected on glycolytic enzyme activities has been estimated. Rabbits were exposed to acrylamide dissolved at a concentration of 0.03% (w/v, corresponding to 4.2 mM acrylamide) in distilled water with or without diet containing 1.5% of garlic powder for 42 days. Acrylamide administration reduced the activities of all investigated glycolytic enzymes in serum and liver tissues of rabbits. However, administration of garlic powder with acrylamide significantly attenuated the reduction of activities of these enzymes. In conclusion, the present study emphasized the role of garlic as a potential adjuvant therapy to attenuate acrylamide toxicity in rabbits.
  A.S. Ahmed , S.M. El-Bahr and A.A. Al-Azraqi
  One day old broiler chicks (n=240) were used to assess the effect of canola and/or olive oil on performance, immunological and biochemical parameters of broiler chickens fed iso caloric and high caloric diets under a hot climate condition. Birds were divided into 2 groups each of 120 birds based on the level of diet energy as iso caloric and high caloric diet groups. Each group were divided equally into four diet treatments in three replicates, control diet free of examined oils, diet containing 2% canola oil, diet containing 2% olive oil and diet containing 1% canola oil + 1% olive oil. Birds housed in wire cage system in an open house system. Experimental diets started at 15 days old. Weight gain, food conversion, hemoglobin, hematocrite and immune response were determined. Liver and kidney functions were evaluated by assessing the activities of Liver enzymes namely alanine transaminase (ALT) and aspartate transaminase (AST), In addition to kidney function biomarkers (Creatinine, Uric acids and blood urea nitrogen, BUN). Inclusion of canola and olive–canola oils combination in broilers ration increased body weight gain, improved feed conversion and keel length. Both olive and canola oils decreased AST in birds fed iso caloric ration, both oils increased the activity of this enzyme in serum of birds fed high caloric diet. In contrast to canola oil, olive oil did not affect the activity of ALT in birds fed iso and high caloric diets whereas oils combination were not recommended whenever iso caloric diet was available. Moreover, renal function was improved in birds fed ration mixed with olive oil or both oils combination. The examined doses of olive oil was effective than canola oil as feed additives to broilers at the levels of peripheral blood and immune response tested against sheep red blood cells.
  M.H. Al-Nazawi and S.M. El-Bahr
  A total of 24 rats were fed a diet either without (Group1) or with black cumin seed 2% (Group 2) or turmeric 2% (Group 3) or plant combination (1% each; Group 4) for 6 weeks. Body weight, feed intake and feed conversion ratio were recorded. At the end of the experiment, blood samples were collected from all groups. The whole blood and harvested sera were used for determination of hematological and biochemical parameters, respectively. The body weight gain and feed conversation ratio were comparable in all treated group when compared with the control. The Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Hemoglobin percentage (Hb%) and Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC) remained unchanged in all treated group when compared with the control. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that serum total protein was significantly (p<0.05) higher in black seed (Group 2) and turmeric (Group 3) treated groups when compared with the control. Globulin value was significantly (p<0.05) higher in black cumin seed treated group than those of control and other groups. The hypolipidemic effect was recorded only in rats fed combination of medicinal plants. The hypocholestrolemia accompanied by lower level of Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) was recorded in rats fed both medicinal plants either alone or in combination. However, this effect was more pronounced in rats fed plants combination. The values of albumin, Alanine Transaminase (ALT), Aspartate Transaminase (AST), High Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c), Very Low Density Lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-c), uric acid and creatinine in all treated groups remained comparable to those of the control group. The present study concluded that plant combination was safe to the animals as reflected on unchanged liver and kidney function biomarkers. Interestingly, black cumin seed and turmeric has hypocholesterolemic effect whenever administered alone or in combination (1% each) whereas the hypolipidemic effect was related to the combined administration of both plants only in the diet of rats.
  I.F. Albokhadaim , I.B. Ismail , S.M. El-Bahr and T. Althnaian
  Embryonated egg is an ideal, environment in which to investigate the effects of incubation temperature on the development of the chick embryo. The objective of the current study were to investigate the effect of increasing the incubation temperature of chick embryo by 1.2°C for 7 days (ED4 to ED11) on the body movement and mass of native saudi chick embryo. This objective was extended to examine the influence of pre-hatching temperature on post-hatching growth. Therefore, a total of 180 hatching egg of native Saudi chicken divided into two equal groups incubated at temperature 37.5°C. The incubation temperature was raised to 38.7°C from ED4 to ED11 in treated group before being returned to the control group incubation temperature (37.5°C). The study revealed that elevating the incubation temperature of the eggs of native Saudi chicken by just 1.2°C, from 37.5 to 38.7°C, during embryonic days (ED) 4-11 causes significant increase in embryonic movement as demonstrated in day 8 in the chicks incubated at 38.7°C together with an increase in embryonic development, the embryos incubated at higher temperature were heavier in weights and exhibit significantly longer legs than the controls in ED12 and 15. The increase in pre-hatching incubation temperature (38.7°C) did not reveal any significant effects on post-hatching growth or of feed conversion efficiency.
  Ibrahim Albokhadaim , Thnaian Althnaian and S.M. El-Bahr
  In many species of birds, normal values for hematological and biochemical factors were measured and data base was established as their blood-profiles. In local Saudi chicken, measurement of serum biochemical values, which are important for diagnosis of clinical signs and symptoms when affected by diseases, are limited. Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate serum's biochemical values of local Saudi chicken. Therefore, forty chicks (1 month old; 20 males and 20 females) and another forty chicks (3 month old; 20 males and 20 females) were obtained from the farm of the Veterinary Research Station, King Faisal University, Al-Ahsa, Saudi Arabia and used as materials in the study. Blood samples were collected from all birds and the harvested sera were kept frozen at -20°C until the time of analysis. The present findings indicated no significant difference (p>0.05) of all examined biochemical parameters between male and female chickens or young and old birds. Interestingly, all investigated biochemical parameters in these chickens were lower than the recorded reference values of other birds except for glucose which exhibited higher values than the reference. The reported lower serum cholesterol and triacylglcerol concentrations might be reflected on their concentrations in meat and protecting human beings from atherosclerosis. Therefore, estimation of lipid profile in these birds is recommended for future study.
 
 
 
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