

Articles
by
S.M. Suhail 
Total Records (
2 ) for
S.M. Suhail 





Yousaf Hayat
,
QamaruzZaman
and
S.M. Suhail


Statistics is one of the most important discipline used in Basic and Applied research including Agricultural Sciences, Biological, Medical, Engineering and Social Sciences etc. Most of the researchers are using the statistical techniques in a wrong way because of the lack of knowledge about these techniques. In this paper an effort has been made to discuss an appropriate statistical techniques used in agricultural research. The most commonly used techniques are Regression analysis and Experimental Designs. 





Asad Sultan
,
F.R. Durrani
,
S.M. Suhail
,
M. Ismail
,
Z. Durrani
and
Naila Chand


This study was conducted to investigate the comparative effect of yogurt as probiotic with the commercially available probiotic protexin on the overall performance of broiler chicks, measured in terms of gain in body weight, feed intake, feed efficiency and economics. One hundred and twenty day old broiler chicks were randomly distributed into 3 main groups A, B and C, that were further divided into 4 sub groups comprising of 10 birds each. Commercial ration was fed ad libitum to all the three groups. The probiotics, yogurt and protexin were given at the rate of 5 mL^{1} of water and 1 g L^{1} of water to group B and A, respectively while group C was kept as control. The data were statistically analyzed, using Completely Randomized Design. The yogurt resulted in significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gain, feed efficiency, dressing percentage and gross return both in starter as well as finisher phases and Protexin did not affect (p>0.05). Mean FCR value in starter phase was 1.86, 1.69 and 1.84 for groups A, B and C, respectively. Group B showed significantly (p<0.05) improved feed efficiency than other two groups. Mean weight gain in starter phase for group A, B and C was 592.5, 633.8 and 610.0 g, respectively. Group B had significantly higher body weight gain (p<0.05). Feed intake in starter phase was 1104.5, 1076.2 and 1115.7 grams for group A, B and C, respectively, there was no significant difference (p>0.05) in all the three groups. Mean FCR in finisher phase were 2.55, 1.98 and 2.51 for group A, B and C, respectively. Group B showed significantly improved feed efficiency (p<0.05) as compared to other groups. No significant (p>0.05) difference was found in feed intake in finisher phase for groups A, B and C. Feed intake was 3281.075, 3136.37 and 3227.25 g, respectively. Mean weight gain in finisher phase for group A, B and C was 1282.3, 1579.5 and 1280.6 g, respectively. Group B had significantly (p<0.05) higher weight gain than group A and C. The dressing percentage of group B was found highly significant (p<0.05), that was 62.95, 67.82 and 62.89% for group A, B and C, respectively. Mortality was recorded during experimental period. Percent Mortality was 5, 0 and 5% for group A, B and C, respectively. Economics was calculated for feed cost and gross return. Mean feed cost per bird was 70.08, 55.76 and 56.45 rupees for group A, B and C, respectively. Group A, showed significantly higher (p<0.05) feed cost as compared with other groups. Gross return calculated were 93.74, 110.7 and 94.53 rupees for group A, B and C, respectively. Group B had significantly higher gross return (p<0.05) as compared with other groups A and C. It was found that yogurt successfully improved the over all performance and gross return of the experimental birds. Further research is needed to investigate the effect of different levels of yogurt in broilers, layers and breeders. 





