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Articles by S.L. Gorniak
Total Records ( 3 ) for S.L. Gorniak
  A.M. Chernaki-Leffer , M.M. Ishizuca , J.C.C. Balieiro and S.L. Gorniak
  Cypermethrin dust was evaluated as a tool for the integrated management of lesser mealworms (also called the darkling beetle), Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer). This experiment examined the efficacy of the cypermethrin against adult and late instar lesser mealworms under laboratory conditions. Two bioassay methods were evaluated, using either a petri plate or a covered plastic container simulating poultry house conditions. In the simulated conditions, two different samples were used and cypermethrin was either dusted onto the surface of the container or was directly dusted onto the bottom. The LC50 for adults was 636.6 ppm, however, 929.7 ppm of cypermethrin dust was needed to achieve a 50% mortality rate in late instar larvae 24 h after the administration of the insecticide. A similar trend was observed in the simulated poultry houses when the adult mortality was >90% while effectiveness in late instar larvae was decreased, i.e., between 50 and 85%. Significant differences in the toxicity profiles were observed in larvae mortality when cypermethrin it was dusted directly onto the litter surface, compared to the bottom of the container. We have verified that cypermethrin dust is available for use in poultry houses however, toxicity profiles of lesser mealworm may depend on the beetle’s stage of development and method of application.
  A.O. Latorre , I.M. Hueza , D.P. Mariano-Souza , M. Haraguchi and S.L. Gorniak
  The objective of this study was to more clearly characterize the immunomodulatory effects of swainsonine and an Ipomoea carnea aqueous fraction using two different mouse strains: Swiss outbred mice and C57BL/6 inbred mice. The swainsonine is the main toxic principle found in the Ipomoea carnea a poisonous plant native from Brazil and other tropical countries. Many studies have shown that swainsonine promotes biological response modifications in different cell lines, such as increased murine splenic NK lymphocyte activity, improvement of peritoneal macrophage activity and macrophage cytotoxicity against tumor cells. In addition, it is suggested that swainsonine stimulates bone marrow cell proliferation in inbred mice. Therefore, we evaluated in this study the immunomodulatory effects of swainsonine and I. carnea aqueous fraction using for this analyses of macrophages activities and histology evaluation of lymphoid organ. Thereby, analyses of peritoneal macrophage activities showed decreased phagocytosis of aqueous fraction-treated Swiss mice and enhancement of both the spreading activity and PMA-induced H2O2 production of swainsonine-treated Swiss mice; however, no alterations in these parameters were observed in C57BL/6 mice. In addition, swainsonine and aqueous fraction treatment showed no differences for both Swiss and C57BL/6 mice in the thymus, spleen and bone marrow evaluations and histological analyses of liver and kidney. In conclusion, a clear difference in swainsonine immunostimulant effect was observed when considering mouse strain, while the use of swainsonine alone did not induce bone marrow cellularity in healthy mice.
  D.P. Mariano-Souza , C.A. Paulino , P.C. Maiorka and S.L. Gorniak
  The effects of daily administration of Senna occidentalis (So) seeds in various concentrations [1% (So1), 2% (So2) and 4% (So4)] to animal feed were investigated in adult and juvenile rats. Additionally, this study evaluated the effects of the same amount of feed without So, seeds on rats (PF-rats). Food consumption and body weight gain were evaluated during 14 day. Moreover, hematological parameters, lymphoid organ weight and histopathology were also performed. We found major alterations in the follow parameters: diminished in food consumption in all treated So adult rats, reduction in the total body weight gain in both adult and juvenile rats from So2 and So4 groups. Lymphoid organs evaluation revealed that So seeds can induce immunotoxic effect on thymus and splenomegaly in adult and juvenile rats. These results provide the first evidence that S. occidentalis has a direct toxic effect in thymus how a target organ in mammals and suggested that alterations in lymphoid organs are probably associated with the direct toxic effects of this plant and are not due to malnutrition.
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