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Articles by S.K. Mutayoba
Total Records ( 3 ) for S.K. Mutayoba
  T.S. Olugbemi , S.K. Mutayoba and F.P. Lekule
  The suitability of including Moringa oleifera leaf meal (MOLM) as a feed ingredient in cassava (CC) based broiler diets was evaluated. Seven isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets represented as treatments 1 (maize meal based-control), 2, 3, 4 (20% CC and 0, 5, 10% MOLM) and 5, 6, 7 (30% CC and 0, 5, 10% MOLM) were fed to 378 broiler chicks for 49 days in a completely randomized design. Parameters measured were weight, weight gains, final weight and feed consumed. Feed conversion ratio and feed cost per kilogram weight gain were calculated. Haematological parameters were also obtained after the 49 day trial.
A reduction in performance was observed with increasing inclusion level of MOLM beyond 5%. Birds on treatment 3 (20% CC, 5% MOLM) did not differ significantly (p>0.05) in terms of weight gain (2263.62-2428.26 gm), feed conversion ratio (2.57-2.81), final body weight at 8 weeks (2342.09-2501.24 gm) and feed cost per kilogram weight gain (979.38-1075.78 TSH) from those on the control, 20 and 30% diets (treatments 1, 2, 5). The highest feed consumption (6390.7gm) was recorded among birds on treatment 3 but did not significantly differ (p>0.05) from those on treatments 1, 2, 6 and 7(6002.7-6346.9 gm). It was concluded that broilers could be safely fed cassava based diets containing MOLM at a maximum level of 5% without deleterious effects.
  S.K. Mutayoba , E. Dierenfeld , V.A. Mercedes , Y. Frances and C.D. Knight
  Information on nutritive value of locally available feed ingredients is scarce, therefore chemical composition, TAA, ANF and OSI for eleven feed ingredients commonly used in Tanzania were determined. Standard AOAC Official Methods were performed at the US headquarters of Novus International, Inc. The ingredients were cereals/byproducts (BR, RS, WS1, WS2 and MB), leaf meals (MOLM, GLM and LLM) and oil seed meals/by products (SBM, SCM and CSM). Significant differences for CP, NDF, ADF, minerals, TAA and ANF were observed between nutrient groups. Apart from energy most of the chemical components were lower in cereals; CP and TAA were highest in SBM. CSM contained the highest fat content (35.82%) with high oleic (22.63%) and linoleic (50.59%). The observed chemical differences between (BR and MB) were probably due to their differences in physical composition. Low levels (Ca, Na and P) and EAA were noted in all groups emphasizing the need of using synthetic sources during feed formulation. Total phenols and tannins were (7.71-7.26%) and (2.55-1.02%) for GLM and RS, respectively, but negligible in other feed ingredients. Both HCN and OSI were highest in leaf meals but negligible in other feed ingredients. The chemical composition of ingredients obtained in this study was comparable to values reported elsewhere. This means that optimum diets for livestock can be formulated using ingredient values from established tables and other sources. The present results show that feed ingredients of plant origin vary in their chemical composition therefore they complement each other when used in mixtures of animal diets.
  S.K. Mutayoba , B.M. Mutayoba and R.C. Noble
  A study to determine the effects of dietary fat composition and post-hatching age on lipid changes of the yolk sac membrane (YSM) and the liver. Two groups of ninety-day-old male broiler chicks were fed diets containing a saturated fat (tallow oil) Diet 1 and unsaturated fat (soybean oil) Diet 2 for two weeks. Twelve birds from each treatment were sacrificed on days 1, 3, 6, 9, 12 and 14 post-hatch and samples of the YSM, liver and gall bladder bile were collected. Weight changes of the chick and tissues and also lipid composition were determined during the experimental period. About 75% decrease in YSM weight occurred during the first 3 days post-hatch and it was negligible by day 9 post-hatch in both groups. Triglycerides (TG) was the major lipid component of the YSM at day 1 post-hatch (>60% of total lipid) but had declined to less than 2% on day 12 post-hatch. The decreases in TG were accompanied by significant increases of cholesterol esters (CE). These changes were not affected by dietary treatment. The liver constituted 3 and 6% of chick body weight at hatching and at day 6 post-hatch respectively and remained constant thereafter. Changes in total lipid content and lipid composition were noted and were influenced by both dietary fat composition and post-hatching age. It was concluded from these this study major lipid compositional changes occur in the chick body tissues following hatching and these changes are influenced to some extent by dietary composition.
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