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Articles by S.K. Daud
Total Records ( 13 ) for S.K. Daud
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Induced ovulation of captive Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) often encounters low reproductive performances. The present study was conducted to gain insight to problems associated with poor breeding performance of Malaysian mahseer in captivity. In this study, sex steroid hormone levels and ovulation performance in filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) were investigated. Fishes were injected with ovatide, combination of Salmon Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogue (sGnRHa), DOM, sGnRHa+DOM and 0.9% NaCl. A total of 30 matured females T. tambroides with weight ranged from 2.01-3.80 kg were used in this study. The females were given ovaplant (39.5-37.3 μg kg-1) pretreatment for 6 weeks prior to hormones injection. Females were given a single intramuscular injection of ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), DOM (5 mg kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.+5 mg kg-1 b.wt.) or 0.9% NaCl. Blood samples were collected at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h (s) after injection. The effect of these treatments on sex steroids level (Testosterone (T) and 17β-Estradiol (E2) and ovulation performance of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. Result showed that higher ovulatory response was observed in the group treated with positive control ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.). Interestingly, it was observed that sGnRHa and Domperidone (DOM) produce highest egg and larval qualities compared to ovatide and sGnRHa alone. No ovulation occurred in the group treated with DOM alone. Sex steroids plasma concentration of T and E2 increased significantly in association with ovulation. The levels fluctuated and reached a peak at 12 h, then dropped dramatically at 24 Post Injection (PI). In contrast the non-ovulated groups, the sex steroids hormone concentration showed little increment after injection and rose at 12 h PI, then slowly dropped at 24 h pi. These results provide evidence for a strong dopamine inhibition on GtH secretion in captive mahseer.
  L.A. Argungu , A. Christianus , S.M.N. Amin , S.K. Daud , S.S. Siraj and M. Aminur Rahman
  The presence of Asian catfish, Clarias batrachus in Malaysia is at a deteriorating state. It is hardly a cultured species since the supply of seed is unavailable. This species is found in lowland streams, swamp and rice fields. Therefore, they are greatly exposed to factors such as intermittent periods of drought, devastation of the natural habitat and agro-chemicals. Presently, fish farmers are more into the culture of Clarias gariepinus. This threatened the mere existence of this indigenous C. batrachus. Hardiness, good growth, efficient food conversion and excellent nutritional profile guarantee C. batrachus as a suitable aquaculture candidate. Some conservation efforts were looked into in order to prevent the extinction of this potentially important catfish.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Tor tambroides is an important and highly valued freshwater fish. In Malaysia, wild populations of this species has undergone declines in range and abundance due to degradation of their natural habitat. Due to economic important and concerns about their conservation, a culture artificial propagation programme was established to produced seed-stock for aquaculture and conservation purposes. The effectiveness of selected synthetic and non-synthetic commercial hormones was tested on filial 1 generation (F1) of Tor tambroides (Bleeker 1854) females in captivity. A total of 144 matured females were given intramuscular implantation of slow release hormone, Ovaplant (38.6-53.6 μg kg-1 b.wt.), for 5-6 weeks prior to induction. Selected commercial hormones were compared for the induction. The effect of these hormones on breeding performance and larval quality of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. The results showed that Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW) was the most reliable hormone in inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides females overshadowed the other tested hormones. Ovaprim (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was the next best tested hormone followed by a synthetic analogue of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sGnRHa/OvaRH) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.). No ovulation occurred in the groups treated with Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Analogue (LHRHa) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) (1000 μg kg-1 b.wt.) and Carp Pituitary Extract (CPE) (10 mg kg-1 b.wt.). Ovatide was further chosen to test its effectiveness at various dosage levels in inducing ovulation of T. tambroides. Thus, concentration of 0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of Ovatide was found to be the optimum dosage for inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides in captivity.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  The study was conducted to observed the embryonic development, morphology of eggs, newly hatched larve and post larval of the filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides using hatchery-reared specimens. The first cleavage occurred at 2 h after fertilization (HAF), epiboly began at 11 HAF, the embryonic body was formed at 22 HAF and hatched at 76 HAF. The mean total length of newly hatched larvae was 7.44±0.06 mm and almost has similar external features to other Tor species. The mouth and foregut opened at 7th Day after Hatching (DAH) with the mean total length of 12.8±0.11 mm. Tor tambroides reached 13.2±0.15 cm of total length and 31±0.53 g of body weight at 10 months of age. The induced ovulation technique using newly developed commercial synthetic hormone, Ovatide have paved the way for further development and improvement of culture production of the Malaysian mahseer.
  Roushon Ara , A. Arshad , N. Amrullah , S.M. Nurul Amin , S.K. Daud , A.A. Nor Azwady and A.G. Mazlan
  Diet composition of most common fish larvae of family Sparidae was studied in the Sungai Pulai seagrass bed of Gelang Patah South Western part of Johor, Peninsular Malaysia from December 2007 to May 2008. Larvae were collected by subsurface towing of a bongo net. In situ hydrographic parameters were recorded during the sampling cruises. Stomachs were removed from a total of 80 Sparidae specimens during the study period and the stomach contents were examined. Analysis of prey in the stomach showed 24 important food items belonging to 8 major groups: phytoplankton, zooplankton, algae, insects, plant like matter, decapod appendages, debris and unidentified matters. The predominant food items found in the stomach were phytoplankton (60.85%). This was followed by algae (11.73%), zooplankton (9.35%), plant matters (7.84%), debris (4.60%), insects (2.84%), unidentified matters (1.96%) and decapod appendages (0.82%). Habitat in situ temperatures were recorded at 26.92-30.83°C (Mean± SD, 28.60± 1.38); Dissolved oxygen ranged from 4.73 to 6.24 mg L-1 (5.56± 0.53) and the salinity fluctuation was between 29.37 and 33.68 ppt (31.31± 1.68). Among the food items, phytoplankton was the first rank by Simple resultant index (60.85%) followed by algae (11.73%). Therefore, it could be concluded that the fish larvae of family sparidae are mainly herbivorous.
  D. Aziz , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , J.M. Panandam and M.F. Othman
  Information on the genetic diversity of Penaeus monodon throughout its natural range in Malaysia is still limited even though it is a highly exploited species, thus this study was undertaken to genetically characterize the prawn populations. The P. monodon samples were randomly collected from Malaysian waters and were characterized using thirty polymorphic primer pairs which showed high level of polymorphism. The total number of alleles per locus ranged from 3 to 36 with allele size ranging from 100 to 275 base pairs. The mean observed heterozygosity (0.5166) was less than the expected (0.5552), highly significant deficiencies in heterozygotes were detected in total inbreeding (FIS = 0.5500) and pair-wise genetic differentiation (FST = 0.6308) among the populations. Both the (χ2) chi-square and (G2) likelihood ratio tests detected significant differences (p<0.05) which showed a deviation from the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, indicating a probable inbreeding might have occurred in the populations. A Cluster analysis based on genetic distance revealed a fair genetic relationship among all the populations and the pattern was in accordance to the populations’ geographical origins. The highest genetic distance (0.7588) was observed between Lawas and Pulau Sayak populations while the lowest genetic distance (0.1191) was recorded between the Endau Rompin and Sedili populations. Various levels of genetic diversity of the P. monodon reported in this study indicated their genetic status in Malaysian waters and suitability for breeding and culture purposes. This information provides a basis for improvement through selective breeding and in the design of suitable management guidelines for this genetic material.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Natural spawning ground of most Malaysian streams are undergoing extreme changes as a result of human activities, pollution and climate change (extreme temperature fluctuation) which lead to dramatic decrease in mahseer (Tor tambroides, Cyprinidae) populations. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) alone or in combination with dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) on breeding performances of female breeders. Sixty females T. tambroides ranging in weight 2.01 to 3.96 kg while thirty males with average weight 1.38 to 1.72 kg were used in this study. The females were given pretreatment with Ovaplant (23.4-44.9 μg kg-1) for 6 weeks prior to induction. Females were tested with various treatments such as Ovatide, sGnRHa, sGnRHa+DOM and DOM. SGnRH analogue alone does not contain dopamine antagonist to block dopaminergic inhibition action. Females were given single intramuscular injection of Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 BW), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 BW+5 mg kg-1 BW) or DOM (5 mg kg-1 BW). The control group was administered with 0.9% NaCl. The fish did not spawn spontaneously but through hand stripping to release eggs. Results showed that Ovatide significantly produced highest ovulation rate, total stripped eggs and stripped fecundity. Interestingly, we observed that broodstock groups injected with sGnRHa+DOM produced highest fertilization, hatching and survival rates compared to other treatments. Good egg and larval quality were recorded in the group treated with sGnRHa+DOM. No females ovulated in the group receiving DOM alone and saline solution. The combination treatment was found to be more potent in inducing ovulation as compared to sGnRHa alone or DOM alone. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inhibition is a major barrier in inducing spontaneous spawning in captive mahseer and we successful produced progeny generation of T. tambroides larvae.
  M.F. Yusof , S.S. Siraj and S.K. Daud
  The study described the Length-Weight Relationship (LWR) of commercially important and indigenous freshwater catfishes from Peninsular Malaysia. Seven species of freshwater catfishes from three families (Bagriidae, Clariidae and Pangasidae) were collected from various rivers in Peninsular Malaysia. Allometric coefficient, b in LWR varied between 2.19 and 3.20. The LWR with high correlation coefficient (r2) is significant for all species except P. nasutus. The present study also documented first reference for Pangasius nasutus and Pseudomystus siamensis.
  N.A. Muhammad , A. Christianus , S.K. Daud , C.R. Saad , S.A. Harmin and M.Y. Ina-Salwany
  Vitellogenin (vtg) is a high molecular weight glycophospholipoprotein synthesized in the liver under stimulation of estrogen. Basically found in sexually mature female, vtg being taken up by developing oocyte during maturation. It functioned as a nutrient storage for growing embryo. Having potential to be used as a maturation indicator, vtg helps to enhance fish fry production. Tor tambroides is one of the most sought after fish in Malaysia for having potential as a game fish yet so important economically due to high demand by farmers as well as consumers. Main problem in the mass production of T. tambroides fry in hatchery is in the availability and selection of matured broodstock. Identification of matured and ready females morphologically can only be done by experience workers. Therefore, establishment of simple technique to definite identify matured females is necessary. This has led to the identification, purification and development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure blood plasma vtg as maturation indicator. This will definitely contribute to the hatchery production of T. tambroides fry.
  R. Ara , A. Arshad , S.M.N. Amin , S.K. Daud and A.G. Mazlan
  Temporal variation of fish larval density and composition between seagrass and outside seagrass beds of the southwestern Johor, Malaysia were investigated between October 2007 and September 2008. Fish larvae were sampled monthly by using a bongo net with 500 μm mesh size and 30 min sub-surface tow. In situ environmental variables were also recorded during the sampling works. The fish larval assemblage comprised of 20 families from the seagrass beds and 16 families recorded from the outside seagrass beds station. In total, 3738 larvae (2,801 from seagrass and 937 from non-seagrass area) were collected. Total larva density was at 79 individuals per 100 m3 and 34 individuals per 100 m3 for seagrass beds and outside seagrass station respectively. Larval abundance varied significantly within monsoon and inter-monsoon seasons, with peaks in February-March and May-July. Top five families were Blenniidae, Clupeidae, Gobiidae, Sillaginidae and Terapontidae and they occurred consistently throughout the year. Larvae belonging to family Clupeidae (47.94% in seagrass and 42.03% in outside seagrass) and Terapontidae (17% in seagrass and 24% in outside seagrass) were the most abundant family in the study areas. The highest density of total larval fishes was recorded at the seagrass ecosystem. The spatial variations in larval density were not significantly (p>0.05) different between the seagrass beds and open sea station.
  B. P. Keong , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , J.M. Panandam and S.A. Harmin
  Inheritance of background body colour in molly, Poecilia is not well documented despite being an economically important aquarium fish. This study was attempted to understand the inheritance of background body colour between crosses of Poecilia latipinna (non-black) and Poecilia sphenops (black) through controlled breeding. A total of 13 breeding crosses which consist of two pure bred crosses, six parental hybrid crosses, two backcrosses, two test crosses and one full-sib cross were successfully initiated. In molly, Poecilia, non-black body colour is completely dominant over black and is not sex-linked. Multiple genes interaction which acted nonadditively was also found to be influencing this phenotypic trait. However, such interaction effect was restricted in crosses generated between genetically related fish (backcross and F2 full-sib) and was absent in crosses between distantly related fish (testcross). Perhaps, such occurrence was a natural mechanism to maintain the vibrancy of non-black colouration.
  I.S. Kamaruddin , A.S. Mustafa- Kamal , A. Christianus , S.K. Daud , S.M.N. Amin and L. Yu- Abit
  The Length-weight Relationship (LWR) and condition factor (K) of three most dominant species from the Tasik Kenyir was evaluated from February 2008 to January 2009. The data were analyzed by the equation of W = aLb and were transferred to Log10W = Log10 a + b Log10 L, for the length-weight relationship and K = W x 100 L-3 for the condition factor. The relative growth coefficient (b) values for Barbodes schwanenfeldii was 2.784, Notopterus sp. was 1.905 and Hampala macrolepidota was at 3.043. The condition factor values varied seasonally for each species that range from 2.48±0.39 to 2.68±0.28 for B. schwanenfeldii, 0.95±0.10 to 1.03±0.20 for Notopterus sp. and from 2.17±0.19 to 2.35±0.39 for H. macrolepidota.
  L.A. Argungu , A. Christianus , M.S.N. Amin , S.K. Daud and S.S. Siraj
  Malaysia is one of the countries in Asia with higher scarcity of Clarias batrachus. Consequently, to arrive at better ways of handling the situation the reproductive endocrinology of the species was investigated. Testosterone (T), 11-ketotestosterone (11KT) and 17β-estradiol (E2) were the plasma sex steroid hormones monitored monthly throughout the reproductive cycles. Several peak levels were observed in the annual profiles of all the steroid hormones, implying that C. batrachus is a non-seasonal breeder, signifying that the species could spawn several times during the reproductive cycle. Most of the scholars who earlier worked on the breeding of this fish concentrated on a particular period (May to August) assuming that was the only season successful induced breeding of the species could be achieved. The present study has enhanced the understanding of the reproduction of C. batrachus. It has provided a platform for the optimization of reproduction and breeding program of the species.
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