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Articles by S.H. Garba
Total Records ( 6 ) for S.H. Garba
  M.B. Maina , Y.C. Shapu , S.H. Garba , M.A. Muhammad , A.M. Garba , A.U. Yaro and O.N. Omoniyi
  Cranial capacity is a measure of the volume of the interior of the cranium which is sometimes used as a rough indicator of the size of the brain and is mostly affected by environmental, geographical, gender, age, nutritional and racial factors. A survey of available literature indicates a lack of study on cranial capacities in adults resident in Maiduguri North Eastern Nigeria, this study was therefore undertaken to determine the Cranial Capacities (CC) of 300 (150 males, 150 females) aged 18-35 years adults resident in Maiduguri Metropolis using a random stratified method. Linear measurements of cranial length, width, height and head circumference were undertaken and their cranial capacities calculated. The Mean (±SD) of cranial capacity was significantly (p<0.0001) higher in males (1424.4±137.9) than in females (1331.3±201.8). Cranial length and height were also found to be significantly higher in males than in females. The results obtained from this study confirms that the cranial volume of males is higher than that of the females and also suggest that the cranial capacity of adult males and females were slightly higher than those of similar studies carried out in some ethnic groups indigenous to the southern part of Nigeria.
  S.H. Garba , J. Prasad and U.K. Sandabe
  The aqueous root-bark extract of Ficus sycomorus (Linn) was tested for its chemical constituents, acute toxicity and hepatoprotective effect against Carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced hepatotoxicity in rats. A total of 78 adult albino rats weighing between 150-320 g were used. The animals were each weighed at the start of the experiment and divided into two segments consisting of 42 rats for the acute toxicity and 36 rats for the hepatoprotective study segments, respectively. In the acute toxicity study the aqueous extract of the root-bark of Ficus sycomorus was administered intraperitoneally (ip) in a dose range of 0.2-12 g kg-1 and the rats were observed for the physical signs of toxicity for 24 h. The hepatoprotective segment involved dosing the negative control rats intraperitonealy with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) 3 mL kg-1 that was dissolved in corn oil to induce liver damage while the treatments groups were pretreated with 640 mg kg-1 of the extract orally an hour before CCl4 (3 mL kg-1) was administered to observe if the extract has any hepatoprotective effect against CCl4 induced hepatotoxicity At the end of each treatment period, the animals were weighed and blood was obtained from animals administered CCl4 and pre-treated with 640 mg kg-1 of the extract for biochemical analysis with the liver extracted, weighed and processed for histological assessment. Phytochemical analysis of the extract revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids, alkaloids, tannins and reducing sugar and LD50 was calculated as 3.200.6031 g kg-1. Pre-treatment of the rats with the extract was able to reduce though not significantly, changes in the biochemical parameters (decrease in albumin but increase in Aspartate Transaminase (AST), Alanine-Transaminase (ALT), Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) and bilirubin) and preserved the liver parenchymal architecture against CCl4 induced degenerative changes, fibroplasia and cirrhosis. The results of this study showed that the plant extract had hepatoprotective effect on the parenchymal architecture of the liver against CCL4 induced hepatotoxicity in rats. But further studies to observe its hepatocurative potentials would be useful and is recommended.
  S.H. Garba , M.M. Shehu and A.B. Adelaiye
  The effect of inhaling mosquito coil smoke on the haematology and histology of the rats spleen was studied. A total of 30 albino rats of the Wister strain were used in this study, they were divided into six groups of five rats each. Rats in Group I served as control (no exposure to mosquito coil smoke). While Groups II-VI were exposed to mosquito coil smoke for 12 h, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days, respectively. At the end of each experimental period, blood was collected from each rat for the analysis of Red Blood Cell (RBC) count, White Blood Cell (WBC) count, Haemoglobin (Hb) concentration, Packed Cell Volume (PCV) and the percentages of Neutrophils, Monocytes, Eosinophils, Basophils and Lymphocytes. The rats were then sacrificed and the spleen obtained, was processed for routine histological analysis. Haematological analysis of the blood obtained revealed a significant (p<0.01, 0.05) increase in WBC count in all exposure periods, while analysis of differential leucocyte count revealed a significant (p<0.05) increase in basophil and lymphocyte percentages. Histological analysis of the spleen tissue revealed severe congestion of venous sinusoids, hyperplasia and regression of both the red and white pulps. Results from this study demonstrates that mosquito coil smoke inhalation challenges the immune system in experimental rats, however, the precise mechanisms remain to be clarified in more detailed studies.
  A.U. Ekanem , S.H. Garba , T.S. Musa and N.D. Dare
  The ear is an important and under-recognized defining feature of the face whose shape conveys information about age and sex that is clearly difficult to characterize. This study was designed to generate anthropometric, normative cross-sectional data on the adult ear auricle in Nigerians. It was also aimed at showing the morphological and aesthetic differences between males and females; as well as changes in ear morphology with age. A total of 217 adult Nigerians (aged 18-65 years) who met the inclusion criteria were enrolled into the study. Standardized measurements of the ear pinna (total ear height, lobular height and lobular width) were undertaken. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 10.0. The mean total ear height and mean lobular height across the cohort were 5.60 and 1.11 cm, respectively, while the average lobular width measured 1.35 cm. The results indicates that the mean total ear height and mean lobular height were higher in the males than in the females while the females had a higher mean lobular width of 1.37 cm than the mean lobular width of 1.33 cm in males. There were increases in earlobe height and lobular height but a decrease in lobular width with advancing age. This study has shown that age related changes in ear morphology do exist in Nigerians and the changes were with respect to sex from adolescence to the age groups of 41-45 years. But further study to relate the results of our present study to the height of individual and some facial/cranial anthropometric parameters is going on.
  M.B. Maina , S.H. Garba and T.W. Jacks
  This research was carried out as a preliminary study to determine the histological effect of a herbal tea mixture on the rat testis. A total of 25 adult male albino rats of the Wister strain were used, they were randomly divided into five groups of five rats each. Group I served as control, while rats in groups II-IV were administered 2, 4 and 8 g kg-1 body weight of the herbal tea, respectively for 28 days. Rats in group V were administered 8 g kg-1 of the herbal tea for 28 days and allowed to stay for 14 days post treatment to observe for reversibility, persistence or delayed occurrence of toxic effects. At the end of the experimental periods, the animals were sacrificed and the weights of the testes recorded, fixed and processed for routine histological technique. Administration of the herbal tea to rats showed a significant increase in body weights, but testicular weights were unaffected. Histological examination of the rat`s testis revealed interstitial edema and congestion of blood vessels in the testes of the treated rats. Withdrawal of the herbal tea for 14 days showed a slight degree of recovery in the rats. These findings suggests that the histological organization of the testis can significantly be altered with continuous and increase use of the herbal tea mixture. Further studies to determine the effect of the tea on the morphometry, biometry and hormonal profile of the rat`s testes following long term exposure will be useful.
  S.H. Garba , S. Ahmadu and I.A. John
  Sclerocarya birrea (Hochst) is widely used in Nigeria and some African countries as medicine for the treatment of various ailments. In the present study the effect of the aqueous extract of Sclerocarya birrea was investigated against alcohol-carbon tetrachloride induced hepatocellular injury in rats over a period of 21 days. The aqueous stem bark extract was administered orally by gavage to the rats at a dose of 2, 5 and 8 mg kg-1 body weight, respectively from days 15 to 21, while a single dose of carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 0.1 mL kg-1 body weight in pure corn oil) was administered subcutaneously on day 20 to induce hepatotoxicity. At the of end the experimental period, blood was collected for the assessment of serum levels of Alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), Aspartate aminotransferase (ASAT), Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin, albumin and protein levels. The liver tissue obtained was used for histopathological assessment of liver damage. The levels of ASAT, ALP and Albumin were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the rats administered 2 mg kg-1 but was more (p<0.001) in the 5 mg kg-1 groups. Histopathological studies show vacuolar cytoplasmic degeneration, multiple foci of hepatocyte cloudy swelling and focal areas of hepatocyte necrosis with macrophage infiltration providing supportive evidence for the biochemical analysis with greater toxicity in the groups administered 2 and 5 mg kg-1 of extract. This study demonstrates that the aqueous extract of the stem bark of Sclerocarya birrea extract possess possible hepatotoxic and antihepatotoxic activity at low and high doses, respectively.
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