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Articles by S.H. Gan
Total Records ( 2 ) for S.H. Gan
  S. Buhari , H. Kalthum , Y.M. Goh and S.H. Gan
  Surgery and anesthesia causes fluctuations in hemodynamics which can lead to subtherapeutic drug levels and usually therapeutic failure, making postsurgical pain management difficult. The influence of surgery and anesthesia on the pharmacokinetics of intravenous tramadol in dogs was investigated. Tramadol (3 mg kg-1) was administered during premedication to female dogs (n = 6) undergoing ovariohysterectomy (Group 1) and to another non-surgery group (n = 6) of female dogs (Group 2) and the pharmacokinetics were compared between the groups. The outcome of this study showed that surgery and anesthesia affected the pharmacokinetics of tramadol, as indicated by a two-fold increase in the elimination half-life (1.10±0.18 h in Group 1 compared to 0.49±0.07 h in Group 2) and a three-fold increase in the area under the curve (770.21±117.76 ng.h mL-1 for Group 1 compared to 117.61±85.16 ng.h mL-1 for Group 2). Clearance was also significantly lower (3.98±0.56 mL min-1 kg-1) in Group 1 than in Group 2 (21.06±9.34 mL kg-1). Serum levels of both interleukin-6 and β-endorphin were increased at 6 and 9 h in the surgery group which further indicates that the rapid metabolism and clearance of tramadol in dogs are correlated with postsurgical pain. Therefore, re-administration of tramadol at 3 h is necessary for pain control. This suggests that surgery has a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of tramadol in dogs.
  P. Visweswara Rao , P. Sujana , T. Vijaykanth , Nanda Siva Sankar , B. Vijaya Kumar , Dhananjaya Naidu and S.H. Gan
  Hemidesmus indicus (H. indicus), Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) and Tinospora cordifolia (T. cordifolia) are three important medicinal plants in traditional Indian medicine. In this study, the methanolic and chloroform extracts of different plant parts (roots, stems and leaves) of H. indicus, O. sanctum and T. cordifolia were subjected to phytochemical, antibacterial, antifungal and antioxidant tests. Phytochemical screening of both extracts of each plant part revealed the presence of phytochemicals such as alkaloids, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, steroids and tannins. The methanolic extracts of all three plants exhibited greater antibacterial and antioxidant effects than the chloroform extracts. These effects could be related to the high content of phytochemical constituents such as alkaloids, steroids, tannins, flavonoids and phenols. When comparing the various plant parts, the roots of H. indicus had the highest number of antimicrobial activities, showing antibacterial properties against all of the investigated organisms except for one (A. flavus). The H. indicus leaf extract had antibacterial activities against S. aureus, E. coli and K. pneumoniae while the stem was effective against P. vulgaris and A. niger. The root of T. cordifolia has the second highest antimicrobial activity, acting against five different organisms (B. subtilis, S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, P. vulgaris and A. niger). O. sanctum leaf extract exhibits antibacterial activity against B. subtilis and E. coli, while the stem is only effective against B. subtilis. The methanolic root and stem extracts of H. indicus, the methanolic leaf extract of O. sanctum and the stem extract of T. cordifolia also have antioxidant potential.
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