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Articles by S.F. Ambali
Total Records ( 4 ) for S.F. Ambali
  C. Uchendu , S.F. Ambali , J.O. Ayo , K.A.N. Esievo , I.O. Lasisi and Y.L. Surakat
  Induction of oxidative stress is one of the molecular mechanisms involved in chlorpyrifos-induced toxicity. The study was aimed at evaluating the effect of Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALC), an antioxidant molecule on alterations in biochemical changes evoked by subacute chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure in Wistar rats. Twenty-eight young adult male Wistar rats used for the study were divided into 4 groups of 7 animals each. Group I was administered S/oil (2 mL kg-1) while group II was given ALC (300 mg kg-1). Group III was administered CPF (8.5 mg kg-1) while group IV was pretreated with ALC (300 mg kg-1) and then administered CPF (8.5 mg kg-1), 30 min later. The regimens were administered orally via gavage for 4 weeks. The sera obtained from the blood samples were analysed for concentrations of electrolytes (Na+, K+, Cl¯ and HCO3¯), total proteins, albumin, globulin glucose, urea, creatinine and activities of aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase and creatine kinase. The liver was also examined for malonaldehyde concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase. The result shows that ALC pretreatments attenuate CPF-evoked alterations in biochemical parameters apparently due to its antioxidant properties.
  S.F. Ambali , M. Mamman , A.O. Adaudi , K.A.N. Esievo , J.O. Ayo and M.S. Abubakar
  The aim of this study is evaluate the curative and protective effects of penicillin G in mice poisoned with the lyophilized extract of Chlorophyllum molybdites. Fifty Swiss albino mice were divided into 5 groups of 10 mice each. Mice in group 1 were pretreated with penicillin G at 38, 280 IU kg-1, i.p. and then dosed with LD99 of C. molybdites (741 mg kg-1) i.p., mice in group 2 were dosed with the extract and then treated with penicillin G, while mice in group 3 were dosed with the extract only. Mice in groups 4 and 5 were dosed with penicillin G and physiological saline solution, respectively. The mice were monitored for clinical signs of toxicity, pathological lesions and death over a period of 72 h. The mean time of death in mice from penicillin-treated groups 1 and 2 were compared with those in the extract-treated group using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and values of p<0.05 were considered significant. The result showed a significant reduction in the severity of clinical signs and mortality in penicillin-treated groups 1 and 2 compared to the group dosed with only the extract. There was a significant difference in the mean time of death in mice from groups 1, 2 and 3. However, there was no reduction in the severity of lesions in mice from groups 1 and 2 treated with penicillin G compared with extract-treated group. Therefore, this study has shown that penicillin G has significant curative and protective effects in mice poisoned with the lyophilized extract of C. molybdites. This result may prove useful in the treatment of humans and animals suffering from C. molybdites poisoning.
  S.F. Ambali , M. Mamman , A.O. Adaudi , K.A.N. Esievo , N.D.G. Ibrahim and M.S. Abubakar

Mushrooms are macrofungi widely consumed as food. However, many mushrooms rot away in the wild because of fear of toxicity. Therefore, lyophilized aqueous extracts of 6 mushroom species collected from Zaria, Nigeria and taxonomically identified as Chlorophyllum molybdites, Panaeolus subalteatus, Macrolepiota procera, Leucopaxillus albissmus, Hygrophoropsis aurantiacus and Pholiota aurea were screened for toxicity in mice. Lyophilized aqueous extract of each of these mushrooms was administered to three groups of 3 mice intraperitoneally (i.p.) at doses of 100, 1000 and 10, 000 mg kg-1, respectively. Another group of three mice given distilled water served as control. The mice were examined for clinical signs of toxicity over a period of 72 h and pathological examinations conducted on dead animals. The severity of clinical signs, onset of death and pathological lesions were dose dependent. Death occurred within 10 min in all the mice dosed at 10,000 mg kg-1 with the lyophilized extracts of all the mushrooms screened, with the exception of that of H. aurantiacus, which produced death 21-23 h post administration. This result showed that all the screened mushrooms, including the popular edible M. procera were found toxic. Therefore, since all the mushrooms screened were found toxic, it is recommended that extreme caution should be exercised in their consumption. Furthermore, in view of the regional differences in the toxicity of mushrooms, there is the need to screen more wild mushrooms found in Nigeria for toxicity. This will boost mushroom mycophagy, reduce poisoning incidence and reduce wastage of edible mushrooms in the wild.

  S.F. Ambali , A.T. Abubakar , M. Shittu , L.S. Yaqub , S.B. Anafi and A. Abdullahi
  Chlorpyrifos (CPF) toxicity has been shown to be partly mediated through induction of oxidative stress. In the present study, experiments were conducted with the aim of evaluating the ameliorative potentials of zinc on CPF-evoked alteration in hematological parameters in Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided at random into 4 groups of 5 animals per group. Rats in group I served as the control and were given only soya oil (2 mL kg-1) while those in group II were administered zinc only (50 mg kg-1). Rats in group III were dosed with CPF only (10.6 mg kg-1, ~1/8th of LD50). Those in group IV were co-administered zinc (50 mg kg-1) and CPF (10.6 mg kg-1). The different regimens were administered orally once daily for a period of 8 weeks. At the end of the study period, blood samples collected after sacrificing the animals were analyzed for hematologic parameters such as Packed Cell Volume (PCV), Hemoglobin (Hb), Red Blood Cells (RBC), Mean Cell Volume (MCV), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin (MCH), Mean Corpuscular Hemoglobin Concentration (MCHC), hemoglobin indices, platelets, absolute and differential White Blood Cell (WBC) counts, neutrophil-lymphocyte ratio and erythrocyte malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration. The results revealed that alterations in the values of PCV, Hb, RBC, platelets, absolute and differential WBC and MDA induced by CPF were ameliorated by co-administration with zinc. In conclusion, the study has shown that attenuations of CPF-evoked alterations in hematological parameters by zinc may be partly mediated through its antioxidant properties.
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