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Articles by S.C. Ricke
Total Records ( 3 ) for S.C. Ricke
  Z. R. Howard , R.W. Moore , I.B. Zabala Diaz , W.K. Kim , S.G. Birkhold , J.A. Byrd , L.F. Kubena , D.J. Nisbet and S.C. Ricke
  An in vitro study was designed to determine the extent of Salmonella enterica serovar enteritidis survival and growth permissiveness in egg components isolated from shell eggs held at refrigeration temperature over an 8 week time period. Eggs were collected from a commercial laying facility at one-week intervals for eight weeks and stored at refrigeration temperature. After storage, eggs were dipped in ethanol, cracked aseptically and separated into yolk and albumen samples. S. enteritidis resistant to novobiocin and nalidixic acid were inoculated on to the surface of the yolk membrane at a concentration of approximately 106 CFU mLˉ1. Yolks were then covered with albumen and incubated for 24 hrs at 25ÂșC. After incubation, eggs were separated into component parts. Samples were removed from yolk, albumen and yolk membrane and diluted 10-fold in sterile phosphate buffered saline. In albumen, S. enteritidis counts were increased in weeks 3 and 8 compared to week 1 (trial 2). The frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis in albumen occurred at week 7 versus weeks 0 and 1 in trial 1 and weeks 3 and 8 versus weeks 0 and 2 in trial 2. In the membrane fraction, the frequency of eggs exhibiting net growth of S. enteritidis occurred at weeks 5 and 8 versus week 0 in trial 2. In the yolk fractions, S. enteritidis counts recovered from week 6 eggs were significantly higher (P<0.05) than those of weeks 0, 2, 3 and 7 (trial 2) and the number of detectable S. enteritidis positive eggs were greater in week 8 than week 5 in trial 1. This suggests that egg components recovered from aged eggs stored at refrigeration temperatures infrequently supported S. enteritidis net growth but generally did not inhibit survivability.
  J.R. Moyle , F. Solis de los Santos , G.R. Huff , W.E. Huff , N.C. Rath , M. Farnell , A.C. Fanatico , S.C. Ricke , C. Enders , U. Sonnenborn , D.J. Donoghue and A.M. Donoghue
  Concerns over the use of antibiotics as growth promoters in poultry production has led to interest in finding alternative growth promoters such as natural compounds and probiotics. Supplementing feed with probiotics has shown to enhance the Gastrointestinal Tract (GIT) development of chickens and turkeys. The human probiotic, E. coli Nissle 1917 (EC Nissle) has been shown to stimulate innate immunity in mammals and to increase body weight in poultry. However, the effect of this probiotic on GIT development has not been studied. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of EC Nissle in the maturation of the GIT of young turkey poults. Fifty-four day of hatch turkey poults were housed in battery brooders and fed either a standard diet or the same diet containing of 108cfu EC Nissle /bird/day for 21 days. For GIT morphometric analysis, birds were euthanized on days 4, 7 or 21 and samples collected to evaluate villus height, villus surface area, lamina propria thickness, crypt depth and the number of neutral goblet cells. GIT morphometric analysis was conducted on duodenum, jejunum, ileum and cecum on days 4 and 7 and the duodenum on day 21. Villus height and villus surface of the GIT were higher in the EC Nissle treatments compared to control (p<0.05) on all sampling days with the exception of the jejunum and ileum on day 4. Lamina propria thickness and crypt depth were also increased in the EC Nissle treatment in all sections of the GIT except on day 4 in the jejunum. These data suggest that this human E. coli isolate enhanced the maturation of the GIT in young turkey poults and may have potential as an alternative to growth promoting antibiotics.
  J.H. Metcalf , P.A. Moore Jr , A.M. Donoghue , K. Arsi , A. Woo-Ming , P.J. Blore , I. Hanning , S.C. Ricke and D.J. Donoghue
  To evaluate potential bacterial runoff from poultry litter, litter was applied to test plots and exposed to simulated rainfall 1, 8 or 15 d after litter application. Runoff samples were tested for Salmonella and Campylobacter, two bacterial pathogens commonly associated with poultry, as well as common fecal indicators such as coliforms, enterococci and Escherichia coli. The runoff samples were evaluated from treatments of no litter (control), or the equivalent of 1, 2 or 4 ton/acre of untreated poultry litter. Additionally, runoff samples from treatments of 2 tons/acre of alum-treated litter, 2 tons/acre composted litter and 2 ton/acre deep-stacked litter were compared for bacterial content. Three replicates of the treatments were performed, for a total of 21 test plots. No Campylobacter was isolated from any of the samples and the majority of samples tested negative for Salmonella. Although Salmonella was detected in runoff from many of the plots, it may have originated from sources other than the applied litter (rodents, birds, etc.) since it was detected in two of the unfertilized control plots.
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