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Articles by S.C. Ibrahim
Total Records ( 4 ) for S.C. Ibrahim
  M.Z.A. Yahya , A.M.M. Ali , M.F. Mohammat , M.A.K.M. Hanafiah , M. Mustaffa , S.C. Ibrahim , Z.M. Darus and M.K. Harun
  In this study, chitosan was used as the host with lithium acetate (LiOAc) as the doping salt and Palmitic Acid (PA) and Oleic Acid (OA) as plasticizers. The highest conducting film containing salt has composition 55 wt. % CA and 45 wt. % LiOAc. Complexation between chitosan and the salt can be proven by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) method. The NH2 and O = C-NHR vibrations which can be observed at 1580 and 1655 cm-1 shift to lower wavenumbers when the complexes are formed. In this study, other than the salt, plasticizers are also added to the polymer with the aim of enhancing the electrical conductivity of the polymer, the mixing of these three components could lead to some interactions for the formation of the polymer electrolyte with its own unique properties. Hence, apart from justifying the occurrence of complexation, it is also essential to know the possible interactions between the salt and plasticizer, the plasticizer and the polymer and within the polymer-salt-plasticizer system. With such knowledge, a model of the polymer-salt and plasticizer system could be devised which might be able to explain the electrolytic property of the sample, in particular, the ion conducting mechanism.
  M.A.K.M. Hanafiah , W.S.W. Ngah , S.C. Ibrahim , H. Zakaria and W.A.H.W. Ilias
  The ability of rubber or Hevea Brasiliensis (HB) leaf powder to adsorb Pb2+ from aqueous solution has been investigated through batch experiments. The Pb2+ adsorption was found to be dependent on contact time, initial Pb2+ concentration and temperature. The kinetic processes of Pb2+ adsorption onto HB leaf powder were described by applying pseudo-first-order and pseudo-second-order rate equations. The kinetics data for the adsorption process obeyed pseudo-second-order equation. The equilibrium data were described well by the Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The maximum adsorption capacity determined from the Langmuir isotherm was found to be 46.73 mg g-1 at 303 K. Thermodynamic parameters such as ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° were also calculated. The adsorption process was found to be exothermic and spontaneous in nature. The studies showed that HB leaf powder could be used as a good adsorbent material for Pb2+ removal from aqueous solution.
  M.Z.A. Yahya , M.K. Harun , A.M.M. Ali , M.F. Mohammat , M.A.K.M. Hanafiah , S.C. Ibrahim , M. Mustaffa , Z.M. Darus and F. Latif
  Chitosan was used as the host polymer with lithium acetate (LiOAc) as the doping salt and Palmitic Acid (PA) and Oleic Acid (OA) as plasticizers. The highest conductivity value was obtained for film containing salt 55 wt. % CA and 45 wt. % LiOAc. At this composition, the surface of the film shows clusters of needle or dendrite-like structures. The x-ray diffractogram shows peaks at 2θ = 16°, 21°, 26° and 31° attributed to the salt. The peaks are small and relatively broad in comparison to sample with equal amounts of polymer and salt. The surface of the film shows that the salt has recrystallized out of the film. This could reduce the number of mobile lithium ions in the film and thus lower the conductivity of this sample. Both films formed from solution containing 1.0 g chitosan +0.20 g oleic acid and containing 1.0 g chitosan +0.40 g oleic acid have a porous surface. Such films could be suitable as a separator for lithium ion cells. This surface morphology is different from those films obtained from a solution containing 1.0 g chitosan +0.40 g ethylene carbonate. The highest conducting OA plasticized film contains 50 wt. % CA, 40 wt. % LiOAc and 10 wt. % OA. The surface looks soft and spongy with tunnel-like structures.
  M.A.K. Megat Hanafiah , W.S. Wan Ngah , H. Zakaria and S.C. Ibrahim
  A batch adsorption method was applied to study the adsorption of Pb2+ ions from aqueous solution by lalang or Imperata cylindrica (IC) leaf powder. Effect of initial lead concentration, contact time, pH of solution, temperature and adsorbent dose were also investigated. A strong dependence of adsorption capacity on pH was observed as the capacity increased with increasing pH. Adsorption equilibrium was established in about 120 min. Adsorption of lead was found to increase with increasing temperature indicating endothermic nature of adsorption. The kinetic data were analyzed using various kinetic models particularly pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order, Ritchie`s-second-order, Elovich and intraparticle diffusion equations. Results show that the pseudo-second order kinetic model was found to agree well with the experimental data. Equilibrium isotherm data were tested using three models-Langmuir, Freundlich and Temkin. Equilibrium data agreed well with Langmuir model. The maximum adsorption capacity of lead by IC leaf powder determined from Langmuir model was 5.89 mg g-1 at pH 4.
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