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Articles by S.A. Harmin
Total Records ( 15 ) for S.A. Harmin
  F.A. Adebiyi , S.S. Siraj , S.A. Harmin and A. Christianus
  The aim of this study was to characterize embryonic and larval developmental stages of the river catfish, Hemibagrus nemurus. Fertilized eggs were spherical, adhesive and demersal with a mean egg diameter of 1.5±0.3 mm. Seven embryonic periods were characterized for timing and features: zygote, cleavage, blastula, gastrula, segmentation, pharyngula and hatching. Mean hatch was 23±1 h post fertilization at 27°C. The newly hatched larvae measured 3.0±0.2 mm in total length. Morphogenesis was completed in a day. The yolk sac was completely absorbed in three days. H. nemurus has a short embryonic developmental period in comparison with other catfish species. The information obtained from this study will be useful for egg incubation and larval rearing during the culture of H. nemurus.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Induced ovulation of captive Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) often encounters low reproductive performances. The present study was conducted to gain insight to problems associated with poor breeding performance of Malaysian mahseer in captivity. In this study, sex steroid hormone levels and ovulation performance in filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer (Tor tambroides) were investigated. Fishes were injected with ovatide, combination of Salmon Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone Analogue (sGnRHa), DOM, sGnRHa+DOM and 0.9% NaCl. A total of 30 matured females T. tambroides with weight ranged from 2.01-3.80 kg were used in this study. The females were given ovaplant (39.5-37.3 μg kg-1) pretreatment for 6 weeks prior to hormones injection. Females were given a single intramuscular injection of ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), DOM (5 mg kg-1 b.wt.), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.+5 mg kg-1 b.wt.) or 0.9% NaCl. Blood samples were collected at 0, 6, 12 and 24 h (s) after injection. The effect of these treatments on sex steroids level (Testosterone (T) and 17β-Estradiol (E2) and ovulation performance of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. Result showed that higher ovulatory response was observed in the group treated with positive control ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.). Interestingly, it was observed that sGnRHa and Domperidone (DOM) produce highest egg and larval qualities compared to ovatide and sGnRHa alone. No ovulation occurred in the group treated with DOM alone. Sex steroids plasma concentration of T and E2 increased significantly in association with ovulation. The levels fluctuated and reached a peak at 12 h, then dropped dramatically at 24 Post Injection (PI). In contrast the non-ovulated groups, the sex steroids hormone concentration showed little increment after injection and rose at 12 h PI, then slowly dropped at 24 h pi. These results provide evidence for a strong dopamine inhibition on GtH secretion in captive mahseer.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Tor tambroides is an important and highly valued freshwater fish. In Malaysia, wild populations of this species has undergone declines in range and abundance due to degradation of their natural habitat. Due to economic important and concerns about their conservation, a culture artificial propagation programme was established to produced seed-stock for aquaculture and conservation purposes. The effectiveness of selected synthetic and non-synthetic commercial hormones was tested on filial 1 generation (F1) of Tor tambroides (Bleeker 1854) females in captivity. A total of 144 matured females were given intramuscular implantation of slow release hormone, Ovaplant (38.6-53.6 μg kg-1 b.wt.), for 5-6 weeks prior to induction. Selected commercial hormones were compared for the induction. The effect of these hormones on breeding performance and larval quality of F1 Tor tambroides were evaluated. The results showed that Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW) was the most reliable hormone in inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides females overshadowed the other tested hormones. Ovaprim (0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt.) was the next best tested hormone followed by a synthetic analogue of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone (sGnRHa/OvaRH) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.). No ovulation occurred in the groups treated with Luteinizing Hormone Releasing Hormone Analogue (LHRHa) (10 μg kg-1 b.wt.), Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG) (1000 μg kg-1 b.wt.) and Carp Pituitary Extract (CPE) (10 mg kg-1 b.wt.). Ovatide was further chosen to test its effectiveness at various dosage levels in inducing ovulation of T. tambroides. Thus, concentration of 0.5 mL kg-1 b.wt. of Ovatide was found to be the optimum dosage for inducing ovulation of F1 T. tambroides in captivity.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  The study was conducted to observed the embryonic development, morphology of eggs, newly hatched larve and post larval of the filial 1 (F1) generation of Malaysian mahseer, Tor tambroides using hatchery-reared specimens. The first cleavage occurred at 2 h after fertilization (HAF), epiboly began at 11 HAF, the embryonic body was formed at 22 HAF and hatched at 76 HAF. The mean total length of newly hatched larvae was 7.44±0.06 mm and almost has similar external features to other Tor species. The mouth and foregut opened at 7th Day after Hatching (DAH) with the mean total length of 12.8±0.11 mm. Tor tambroides reached 13.2±0.15 cm of total length and 31±0.53 g of body weight at 10 months of age. The induced ovulation technique using newly developed commercial synthetic hormone, Ovatide have paved the way for further development and improvement of culture production of the Malaysian mahseer.
  D. Aziz , S.S. Siraj , A. Arshad , S.M. Nurul Amin and S.A. Harmin
  Genomic DNA of sergestid shrimp, Acetes japonicus was successfully extracted by using the Promega Wizard Genomic DNA Purification Kit. Population genetic characterization of A. japonicus along the western coast of Peninsular Malaysia (state of Perak, Malacca and Kedah) was examined using the Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) marker. Twenty oligonucleotides from operon A kit were used to screen the populations, of which 6 were able to be amplified (OPA03, OPA04, OPA07, OPA09, OPA10, OPA16). The percentages of polymorphic bands of the three populations investigated varied from 57.77 to 87.77%. Genetic distances between populations and cluster analysis from UPGMA grouped the populations into two major clusters. The Perak and Malacca populations were in one cluster, while the Kedah population was clustered by itself, indicating a different population. The genetic distance was highest as 0.0999 for the Kedah and the Malacca populations while lowest value was 0.0413 for the Perak and the Malacca populations, which probably have a closed ancestral relationship. The results of this study suggested that RAPD analysis, if carried out carefully and accurately would give a good indication of the separation between individuals of different populations and is suitable for identification of closely related genotypes.
  M. Ebrahimnezhadarabi , C.R. Saad , S.A. Harmin , M.K. Abdul Satar and A.A. Kenari
  The aim of the study was to determine the influence of dietary phospholipids (PL) levels on growth and body composition of beluga (Huso-huso) juveniles. Huso-huso juveniles were fed with an isonitrogenous (45% crude protein (CP)) and isoenergetic (18.00 kJ g-1) formulated diet with four levels of PL, 0, 2, 4 and 6%. The fish were then acclimated to laboratory conditions and fed with a commercial fish feed for 14 days. After acclimation, groups of 60 Huso huso fingerling (mean weight 4.5 g) were randomly stocked into the 12 circular fiberglass tanks. The results showed that during the feeding trials in (56 days), growth performance was high at 4% phospholipids groups. There were significant different (p<0.05) for Condition Factor (CF) fish fed diet D4 had a value of 0.38 followed by fish fed diet D1, D2 and D3 had CF value of 0.47, 0.43 and 0.42, respectively. Weight gain (%) and survival (%) had significant difference (p<0.05) but no significant differences were found for final weight, Feed Conversion Rate (FCR), Specific Growth Rate (SGR), Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER), Lipid Efficiency Ratio (LER), (p>0.05). Significant differences were showed in moisture and protein composition of treatments (p<0.05) but no significant effect (p>0.05) on the fat and ash composition in fish were observed.
  N.M. Azuadi , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , A. Christianus , S.A. Harmin , S. Sungan and R. Britin
  Natural spawning ground of most Malaysian streams are undergoing extreme changes as a result of human activities, pollution and climate change (extreme temperature fluctuation) which lead to dramatic decrease in mahseer (Tor tambroides, Cyprinidae) populations. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of salmon gonadotropin releasing hormone analogue (sGnRHa) alone or in combination with dopamine antagonist domperidone (DOM) on breeding performances of female breeders. Sixty females T. tambroides ranging in weight 2.01 to 3.96 kg while thirty males with average weight 1.38 to 1.72 kg were used in this study. The females were given pretreatment with Ovaplant (23.4-44.9 μg kg-1) for 6 weeks prior to induction. Females were tested with various treatments such as Ovatide, sGnRHa, sGnRHa+DOM and DOM. SGnRH analogue alone does not contain dopamine antagonist to block dopaminergic inhibition action. Females were given single intramuscular injection of Ovatide (0.5 mL kg-1 BW), sGnRHa (10 μg kg-1 BW), sGnRHa+DOM (10 μg kg-1 BW+5 mg kg-1 BW) or DOM (5 mg kg-1 BW). The control group was administered with 0.9% NaCl. The fish did not spawn spontaneously but through hand stripping to release eggs. Results showed that Ovatide significantly produced highest ovulation rate, total stripped eggs and stripped fecundity. Interestingly, we observed that broodstock groups injected with sGnRHa+DOM produced highest fertilization, hatching and survival rates compared to other treatments. Good egg and larval quality were recorded in the group treated with sGnRHa+DOM. No females ovulated in the group receiving DOM alone and saline solution. The combination treatment was found to be more potent in inducing ovulation as compared to sGnRHa alone or DOM alone. Our results suggest that dopaminergic inhibition is a major barrier in inducing spontaneous spawning in captive mahseer and we successful produced progeny generation of T. tambroides larvae.
  N.A. Muhammad , A. Christianus , S.K. Daud , C.R. Saad , S.A. Harmin and M.Y. Ina-Salwany
  Vitellogenin (vtg) is a high molecular weight glycophospholipoprotein synthesized in the liver under stimulation of estrogen. Basically found in sexually mature female, vtg being taken up by developing oocyte during maturation. It functioned as a nutrient storage for growing embryo. Having potential to be used as a maturation indicator, vtg helps to enhance fish fry production. Tor tambroides is one of the most sought after fish in Malaysia for having potential as a game fish yet so important economically due to high demand by farmers as well as consumers. Main problem in the mass production of T. tambroides fry in hatchery is in the availability and selection of matured broodstock. Identification of matured and ready females morphologically can only be done by experience workers. Therefore, establishment of simple technique to definite identify matured females is necessary. This has led to the identification, purification and development of enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to measure blood plasma vtg as maturation indicator. This will definitely contribute to the hatchery production of T. tambroides fry.
  S.A. Hosseini , C.R. Saad , M.S. Bourani , H.M. Daud , S.A. Harmin , H. Zokaei Far and H. Abdi
  Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of weight on the ionic regulation ability of reared Rutilus frisii kutum fingerlings during adaptation to the seawater and downstream migration. Accordingly, the ionic regulation ability of Cl-, K+, Na+ and Mg2+ in kutum fingerlings with weights of 1, 3, 5 and 7 g in three different salinities, that is 13‰ (the Caspian Sea salinity), 7‰ (estuarine area) and fresh water (as control, 0.3-0.5‰), were assessed. The blood samples were provided before being transferred as control (fresh water) and during adaptation to the sea and estuary water in a period of up to 336 h by a pooling method. The measurements of ions were carried out for blood serum Na+ and K+ and alsoplasma Cl-1 and Mg2+ by photometric methods. This investigation showed that ionic regulatory ability of kutum fingerlings depends on their weights. Results of ionic changes during the duration of 336 h (14 days) proved that unlike kutum fingerling with weights of 3, 5 and 7 g, the ionic regulation system in 1 g fingerlings were not able to expel excess ions. Further 1 g kutum were not physiologically ready (smolt) for downstream migration.
  B. P. Keong , S.S. Siraj , S.K. Daud , J.M. Panandam and S.A. Harmin
  Inheritance of background body colour in molly, Poecilia is not well documented despite being an economically important aquarium fish. This study was attempted to understand the inheritance of background body colour between crosses of Poecilia latipinna (non-black) and Poecilia sphenops (black) through controlled breeding. A total of 13 breeding crosses which consist of two pure bred crosses, six parental hybrid crosses, two backcrosses, two test crosses and one full-sib cross were successfully initiated. In molly, Poecilia, non-black body colour is completely dominant over black and is not sex-linked. Multiple genes interaction which acted nonadditively was also found to be influencing this phenotypic trait. However, such interaction effect was restricted in crosses generated between genetically related fish (backcross and F2 full-sib) and was absent in crosses between distantly related fish (testcross). Perhaps, such occurrence was a natural mechanism to maintain the vibrancy of non-black colouration.
  M.P.A. Muntaziana , A. A. Rahim , S.A. Harmin and S.M.N. Amin
  The purpose of the study was to investigate the effect of broodfish sex ratio on seed production of red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. using hapa nets suspended in an earthen pond. Sex ratios used in the experiment were 1:1 and 1:3 (male: female) with three replicates per treatment. Eight broodfish were placed in the hapa, each with a combination of either 4 male: 4 female or 2 male: 6 female to maintain the treatment sex ratios. Tilapia seeds (free swimming fry, sac-fry and eggs) were harvested every 21-day post-stocking. The broodfish were fed 3% of their body weight with a diet that contained 28% crude protein and 4% crude fat. Seed production of both sex ratio treatments were analyzed using the t-test. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) in seed production and female broodfish performance between the two sex ratios tested.
  I. Zalina , C.R. Saad , A.A. Rahim , A. Christianus and S.A. Harmin

Anabas testudineus was successfully induced to spawn using LHRHa. Egg production, hatching rate and GSI were 5126 eggs/fish, 62 and 10.41%, respectively. Results showed that the survival and growth of A. testudineus during the 30-day nursing period were stocking density dependent. The highest survival rate was recorded in T1 (35/L; 75%), followed by T2, (55/L; 53%) and lastly T3 (75/L; 43%). The weekly growth performance in T1 (35/L), in terms of total body length and body weight was significantly better than other treatments, especially after 21-day of nursing. Fish larvae were fed with a combination of live and prepared foods. Water quality parameters were stable and not influenced by the stocking densities tested.

  N.M.R. Fazielawanie , S.S. Siraj , S.A. Harmin , M.Y. Ina-Salwany and N.S. Nik-Daud
  A study was conducted to develop and validate a competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of plasmatic vtg in Asian sea bass, Lates calcarifer. Highly specific polyclonal antibodies against purified vtg (antigen) were employed for quantifying the concentration of plasma vtg. The working ranges of the assay were 31.2 to 1000 ng mL-1 with the sensitivity of 6.9 ng mL-1. Antigen concentration of 250 ng mL-1 and antibody dilution of 1:1000 were selected as a workable ELISA after several preliminary test. The ELISA demonstrated precision with intra-and inter-assay Coefficient of Variations (CVs) at 90, 80 and 50% of binding were less than 8.4 (n = 9) and 12.1% (n = 5), respectively. Serial plasma dilutions from natural vitellogenic females and E2 treated were paralleled to the vtg standard curve (purified vtg) as analyzed by ANCOVA (p<0.05). No cross-reaction was observed in analyses of male’s plasma, indicating non-specific binding. The assay was validated by measuring plasma vtg levels in matured females and males (n = 5) obtained during the reproductive season in captive condition. Female’s plasma vtg ranges from 0.9 to 1.54 mg mL-1, while no vtg was detected in males plasma. Our results indicated that vtg levels proposed as an indicator for maturing female Asian sea bass, L. calcarifer as well as in female species from genus Lates.
  I. Zalina , C.R. Saad , A. Christianus and S.A. Harmin
  This study described the induced breeding and embryonic stage of Anabas testudineus using commercial hormone LHRHa with the intensity level of 2, 20, 200 μg kg-1 of body weight, respectively. It was found that all intensity of LHRHa hormone level could enhance the fish to breed with the exception of the control group. Fertilization rate, hatching rate, latency period, fecundity, oocytes diameter and GSI were quantified in each set of experiment. It was observed that the fertilised eggs of A. testudineus were almost spherical in shape, clear pearl likes in appearance and free floating on water surface. Fecundity and GSI were significantly higher in fish treated with 200 μg kg-1 as compared to fish treated with 2 and 20 μg kg-1 of body weight of LHRHa hormone. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect between hormone level on fertilization rate, hatching rate and eggs diameter. The diameters of fertilised eggs ranged from 800-850 μm. The first cleavage occurred at 1:30 h, epiboly began at 5 h, the embryonic body was formed at 12 h and hatching occurred at 20 h after fertilization at water temperature of 26°C. Newly hatched larvae were approximately 0.6-1 mm (total length) and pigment spots were present over the yolk and head. The embryonic development of the fish is described. The present study indicated that the administration of LHRHa hormone is effective for ovulation and hormone level at 2 μg kg-1 is recommended.
  Nurul Shazwani , Mohamad Pipudin , M.Y. Jasmin , M.Y. Ina-Salwany , S.A. Harmin and Murni Karim
  Vibriosis caused by Vibrio alginolyticus has become one of the most threatening diseases that could limit the production of marine fish in aquaculture industry. In this study, microbe strains Micrococcus spp. (JAQ07) and Bacillus spp. (JAQ04) were used as potential probiotics. Both potential probionts were identified as gram-positive bacteria with different morphology. The antagonistic ability of each candidate probiotics towards V. alginolyticus (ATCC33839) were conducted in liquids modes via co-culture assay in three different concentrations of probiont (102, 104 and 106 CFU mL–1) and each concentration was inoculated with 105 CFU mL–1 of V. alginolyticus. The effectiveness of antagonistic activity was measured by the reduction of V. alginolyticus colonies via plate count at 24 h interval for 120 h. The co-culture assays revealed the reduction of V. alginolyticus colonies by both probiont strains compared to the control (V. alginolyticus at 105 CFU mL–1). In in-vivo assay, JAQ04 was able to enhance the survival of Artemia compared to JAQ07 after challenged with V. alginolyticus. Results revealed that at seven days after inoculation, Artemia treated with at 106 CFU mL–1 cell density followed by challenged with V. alginolyticus showed 70% of survival, while Artemia challenged with only V. alginolyticus demonstrated a 20% survival rate. Since, both strains displayed excellent probiotic activities, they are indeed suitable probiont candidates for managing Vibriosis infecting marine fish.
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