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Articles by S.A. Makawi
Total Records ( 3 ) for S.A. Makawi
  S.A. Makawi and M.E. Badawi
  A total of 82 deep cervical swabs were collected from 10 post-parturient Nubian goats. Thirty eight of these swabs were from five Nubian goats which were kidded normally (control group) and 44 swabs were from post-parturient Caesarean sectioned Nubian goats (C.S group). Collection of the swabs, started from the second day after kidding till the goat came into the first observable heat. The bacteria isolated from swabs taken from the two groups of goats reached 104 species belonging to 10 different genera. They included Bacillus sp. Bordetella sp. Corynebacterium sp. Escherichia sp. Gemella sp. Klebsiella sp. Microccocus sp. Proteus sp. Staphylococcus sp. and Streptococcus sp. The organisms which were common between the two groups included: Bacillus cereus, Escherichia coli, Escherichia fergusonii, Staphylococcus chromogens and Streptococcus faecalis.It was noticed that four goats in the control group were free from aerobic bacteria as early as day 13 and only one goat continued to show these organisms till the occurrence of first oestrus post-partum. However, in the C.S group, four goats continued to host the organisms till the signs of oestrus were observed and only one goat was free from the organisms at day 21. Depending on these finding, the post-partum period in the normally kidded Nubian goats ranged between 13 - 36 days (23.48.46) and between 21-41 days (358.22) in the C.sectioned Nubian goats and the difference between the two groups was a significant (p< 0.05). It could be concluded from this study, that C.S. resulted in a significant prolongation of the post-partum period in the Nubian goats with a noticeable change in the aerobic uterine flora.
  S.A. Makawi and Z.A. Manahil
  Forty Desert ewes were allocated for monitoring the effect of different hormonal treatments and Artificial Insemination (A.I) on their reproductive performance with an regard to oestrous response and fertility rates. The animals were randomly divided into four equal groups (10 ewes each) with average age of 2.000.80 years and body weight of 393.00 kg. The control group (A) was allowed to cycle naturally and handmated, while the other three groups were assigned to different hormonal treatments.These treatments consisted of a double intramuscular injection of Luprositol (3.75 mg 1) 14 days part (group B); intravaginal sponges impregnated with 40 mg 1 Fourogestone Acetate (FGA) inserted for 13 days (group C) and treatment C plus an intramuscular injection of 500 iu Pregnant Mare Serum Gonatotrophin (PMSG) at the time of the sponge removal (group D). Oestrus was detected by the aid of a vasectomized ram, with an excellent libido, introduced to each group immediately after the end of each treatment. Time elapsed from end of treatment to onset of oestrus, oestrous signs and duration of oestrus were monitored. All the ewes in the three treatment groups were artificially inseminated with fresh semen, diluted with homogenized cow milk, 52 h after the end of treatments. Those returning to oestrus were artificially reinseminated. Conception rates were determined by non-return rates and later on by abdominal palpation (ballotement) on day 90-110 post insemination. The results obtained indicated that all the employed treatments can induce and synchronize oestrus in Sudanese Desert ewes. The percentage of ewes responding to treatment B (80%) by showing oestrous signs was significantly higher (p< 0.05) than the other two treatments, followed by treatment D (55.50%) and C (44.40%). The duration of the induced oestrus was signiticantly longer (p< 0.05) in treatment B (43.40±5.20 h) as compared to treatment C (27.30±2.80 h) and D (27.2±3.00 h). The pregnancy rate to first insemination was significantly higher (p< 0.05) in treatment D (100%) as compared to B (40%), C (77.80%) and the control (40%). However, the overall pregnancy rates, based on abdominal ballotement between 90 and 110 days were significantly (p< 0.05) higer in group C (100%) and D (100%) compared to group B (80%) and the control A (50%). Lambing confirmed the results obtained at abdominal ballotement which was 9.23% less than those obtained by the non - return rates. The twining rates were 20, 37.50, 33.30 and 33.30% for treatments A,B,C and D respectively. There were no significant differences (p>0.05) among the different hormonal treatments.
  S.A. Makawi , B.A. Elsharif and E.A. Babiker
  The objective of this study was to investigate the freezability of frozen semen collected from two breed-types of Desert sheep (Hamari and kabashi). Nine rams (6 Hamari and 3 kabashi) aged 2-4 years were used in this study to prepare a total of 293 semen ejaculates collected by means of an artificial vagina. The samples were extended in Tris-based diluent, frozen and stored in liquid nitrogen at -196°C. The date obtained revealed that, both breed-types responded equally to the effect of season. Higher percentages of sperm motility were recorded before freezing in autumn (67.0714.40% vs. 65.4211.17% for Hamari and Kabashi rams , respectively), while the lowest values were observed in semen samples collected in summer (55.367.68% vs. 59.005.83). However, no significant difference (p>0.0.5) was found between breeds or seasons on post-thawing sperm motility, although better records were obtained in the Kabashi rams (59.005.83%) during Summer, compared to Hamari rams (56.966.48%) in the same season. A significant difference (p< 0.05) was observed between the two breed-types and season of the year on the percentage of rejected samples after freezing (15.38 vs 6.35%) with better results obtained in the Kabashi rams. However, post-freezing rejection percentage decreased during autumn and winter (5.56 and 14.29% for Hamari rams with no rejected samples for Kabashi rams). From this study, it could be concluded that, semen collected, throughout the year, from the two breed-types was suitable for freezing. The best semen quality after freezing was obtained during Autumn and Winter.
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