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Articles by S. Tesfaye
Total Records ( 6 ) for S. Tesfaye
  J. S. Leeds , E. M. Forman , S. Morley , A. R. Scott , S. Tesfaye and D. S. Sanders
  Aims: To determine the prevalence of elevated alanine transaminase (ALT) in a large cohort of patients with Type 1 diabetes and to examine the clinical correlations and causes.
Methods: Patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus were prospectively recruited and ALT, glycated haemoglobin and lipid profile were measured. Patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited as a comparison group. Patients with abnormal ALT were investigated for underlying causes. Prevalence of abnormal ALT was analysed at three separate cut-offs and multivariable analysis used to identify independent risk factors.
Results: Nine hundred and eleven with Type 1 diabetes and 963 with Type 2 diabetes were included. The prevalence of elevated ALT was dependent on the cut-off value: > 30 IU/l in males and > 19 IU/l in females, > 50 and > 63 IU/l was 34.5, 4.3 and 1.9%, respectively, in Type 1 diabetes and 51.4, 8.2 and 3.7%, respectively, in Type 2 diabetes. In Type 1 diabetes an elevated ALT was associated with worse glycaemic control, age > 55 years and elevated triglycerides. Investigation of these patients revealed a cause in 43.6% of patients, predominantly non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD).
Conclusions: Elevated ALT is not uncommon in Type 1 diabetes and is associated with NAFLD-related risk factors. Patients with Type 1 diabetes and elevated ALT should be investigated as significant abnormalities may be found which are amenable to interventions.
  I. Istenes , K. Keresztes , Z. Hermanyi , Z. Putz , P. Vargha , R. Gandhi , S. Tesfaye and P. Kempler
  Background  Cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in diabetes and the risk is even greater in those with hypertension.

Aims  The aim of our study was to investigate the relationship between CAN and 24-h blood pressure profile in normoalbuminuric patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

Methods  Seventy patients with Type 2 diabetes (31 without CAN, 39 with CAN), who had no history of hypertension, and 29 healthy volunteers underwent five standard cardiovascular reflex tests to assess autonomic function and 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring.

Results  Twenty-four-hour mean systolic blood pressure, blood pressure load and hyperbaric impact values were significantly higher in diabetic patients with CAN compared with control subjects and diabetic patients without CAN (P < 0.05). In spite of normal clinic blood pressures, 54% of diabetic subjects with CAN and 29% without CAN were hypertensive (systolic blood pressure load > 20%, P < 0.05). In the diabetes group as a whole, Valsalva ratio, postural systolic blood pressure changes and diastolic blood pressure responses during sustained handgrip correlated significantly and negatively with 24-h mean systolic blood pressure (P < 0.01, P < 0.001, P < 0.05) and blood pressure load (P < 0.05, P < 0.001, P < 0.05).

Conclusions  Cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy is independently associated with hypertension in normoalbuminuric Type 2 diabetic patients with no history of hypertension. Relying on clinic blood pressures in subjects with CAN could lead to a failure to diagnose hypertension in over half of cases. All normotensive patients with CAN should be screened for hypertension using ambulatory blood pressure monitoring in order to institute early aggressive interventions to improve their long-term outlook.

  Z. Putz , N. Nemeth , I. Istenes , T. Martos , R. A. Gandhi , A. E. Korei , Z. Hermanyi , M. Szathmari , G. Jermendy , S. Tesfaye , A. G. Tabak and P. Kempler


To assess circadian blood pressure variability in people with impaired glucose tolerance and a healthy control population.


Seventy-five people with impaired glucose tolerance and 40 healthy volunteers (frequency matched on 10-year age bands and sex) underwent a detailed neurological assessment. Autonomic neuropathy was detected by the five standard cardiovascular autonomic tests and heart rate variability was characterized by the triangle index. Diurnal indices were assessed by 24-h ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Systolic and diastolic diurnal indices were defined as: (mean daytime blood pressure - mean night-time blood pressure) x 100/mean daytime blood pressure.


Mean 24-h systolic and diastolic blood pressure was significantly higher in the group with impaired glucose tolerance compared with the control group [126 ± 12 (mean ± sd) vs. 117 ± 10, 75 ± 7 vs. 71 ± 6 mmHg, both P < 0.05). Systolic and diastolic diurnal indices and heart rate variability triangular index were significantly lower in people with impaired glucose tolerance compared with control subjects (9.1 ± 7.8 vs. 13.2 ± 5.4, 14.5 ± 9.7 vs. 18.4 ± 7.1 mmHg, 28.0 ± 8.4 vs. 39.5 ± 9.3, all < 0.05). Differences in mean diastolic blood pressure, heart rate variability triangular index and the frequency of non-dippers between those with impaired glucose tolerance and control subjects seemed to be independent of BMI and the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy, as simultaneous adjustment for BMI and cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy had no major effect on the results.


Our data suggest that people with impaired glucose tolerance have increased diastolic blood pressure and abnormal circadian blood pressure regulation, independent of obesity and the presence of cardiovascular autonomic neuropathy.

  N. Papanas , A. J. M. Boulton , R. A. Malik , C. Manes , O. Schnell , V. Spallone , N. Tentolouris , S. Tesfaye , P. Valensi , D. Ziegler and P. Kempler
  A simple non-invasive indicator test (Neuropad®) has been developed for the assessment of sweating and, hence, cholinergic innervation in the diabetic foot. The present review summarizes current knowledge on this diagnostic test. The diagnostic ability of this test is based on a colour change from blue to pink at 10 min, with excellent reproducibility, which lends itself to patient self-examination. It has a high sensitivity (65.1-100%) and negative predictive value (63-100%), with moderate specificity (32-78.5%) and positive predictive value (23.3-93.2%) for the diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. It also has moderate to high sensitivity (59.1-89%) and negative predictive value (64.7-91%), but low to moderate specificity (27-78%) and positive predictive value (24-48.6%) for the diagnosis of diabetic cardiac autonomic neuropathy. There are some data to suggest that Neuropad can detect early diabetic neuropathy, but this needs further evaluation. It remains to be established whether this test can predict foot ulceration and amputation, thereby contributing to the identification of high-risk patients.
  M. Kurien , J. S. Leeds , A. D. Hopper , G. Wild , W. Egner , S. Tesfaye , M. Hadjivassiliou and D. S. Sanders


Immunoglobulin A (IgA) measurement is advocated when case finding for coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes mellitus. Currently, there is a paucity of contemporary studies assessing IgA deficiency in Type 1 diabetes. This study evaluates the prevalence of IgA deficiency in individuals with Type 1 diabetes, compared with patients with coeliac disease and control subjects. In addition, we evaluate whether routine IgA measurement is justifiable when case finding for coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes.


All patients were assessed using IgA endomysial antibodies, IgA anti-tissue transglutaminase antibodies and total IgA levels. Altogether, 2434 individuals were tested: 1000 patients with Type 1 diabetes, 234 patients with coeliac disease and 1200 population control subjects. Definitive IgA deficiency was defined as total IgA levels < 0.07 g/l.


The prevalence of IgA deficiency was significantly more common in patients with Type 1 diabetes (0.9%, n = 9/1000; P = 0.036) and coeliac disease (1.29%, n = 3/234; P = 0.041) when compared with population control subjects (prevalence of 0.17%, 2/1200). No statistical difference between Type 1 diabetes and coeliac disease for IgA deficiency was identified (P = 0.87). Of patients in the group with Type 1 diabetes, 3.3% (33/1000) had coeliac disease, and of those only one patient had IgA deficiency leading to an antibody-negative presentation. Both IgA-deficient individuals within the population control subjects had normal duodenal biopsies and no relevant symptoms.


IgA deficiency is more common in Type 1 diabetes compared with population control subjects. Despite this, very few individuals with Type 1 diabetes and IgA deficiency appear to have villous atrophy on biopsy. These outcomes question the practice of routine IgA measurement when case finding for coeliac disease in patients with Type 1 diabetes.

  R. A. Malik , S. Tesfaye and D. Ziegler
  Lower extremity amputation is a common and disabling complication of Type 2 diabetes. Whilst the introduction of specialist multidisciplinary teams has led to a reduction in the incidence of lower extremity amputation in some centres, the overall prevalence of diabetes-related amputation has actually increased in recent decades. The aetiology of diabetes-related amputation is complex, with neuropathy, macrovascular and microvascular disease contributing significantly. Ulceration, previous amputation, increasing diabetes duration and poor long-term control of glycaemia and lipids are important risk factors for amputation in populations with diabetes. Major randomized intervention trials of blood glucose-lowering or anti-hypertensive therapies in populations with diabetes have shown limited reductions in neuropathy and/or macrovascular disease, and no benefit on amputation rates. In contrast, a recent analysis from the Fenofibrate Intervention and Event Lowering in Diabetes (FIELD) study showed a significantly reduced rate of minor, but not major amputations in patients with Type 2 diabetes treated with fenofibrate. Mechanistic studies are clearly needed to understand the basis of this benefit.
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