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Articles by S. Sujatha
Total Records ( 16 ) for S. Sujatha
  S. Sujatha and J. Gowri Prakash
  Survey and evaluation of natural enemies of insect pests were investigated by many researchers. Here, >160 species pests were associated with important field crops of sugarcane, rice, wheat pulses, legumes and cotton were recorded including parasitic and predatory mites and insect pathogens. Among these natural enemies few of them are utilized as a biological control agent for suppress the lepidopteran, caterpillar pests, grampod borer, leafhopper.
  Baby Joseph , M.V. Jeevitha and S. Sujatha
  Spirulina is widely used as food because of its rich nutrient contents. They play an important role in gut enzyme activity. The present study determined the digestive tract enzyme activity in spirulina administered Swiss albino mice using a set of biochemical parameters. The experimental group of Swiss albino mice was administered to two different concentrations of spirulina, i.e., 3 and 6% spirulina with 20 days experiment. When the mice were fed with 6% spirulina weight loss has been observed in the experimental animal. Weight loss has been observed about 2.0±0.72 μg mL-1 had been noticed when the Swiss albino mice is treated with concentration of 6% spirulina based probiotic feed. By contrast, weight gain of 5.16±2.68 mg was also observed when the experimental mice fed with 3% probiotic food. These results represented the variation in the enzyme activity after the treatment with experimental feed such as amylase level showed 18.9 μg mL-1 in the foregut and 11.3 μg mL-1 in the hindgut. Lipase level was 45.8 μg mL-1 in foregut and 47.8 μg mL-1 in hindgut. Catalase activity drastically decreased in mice treated with 6% spirulina and enzyme activity of lipase and catalase activity increased in mice treated with 3% spirulina. This study suggests that the spirulina provided in little amount does not show much variation, whereas the spirulina taken in high concentration shows slight changes in the production of digestive enzymes on the Swiss albino mice.
  S. Sujatha , Baby Joseph and P.S. Sumi
  This study having following objectives such as to study the biology, nutritional indices and mid gut enzymes response with three different botanical insecticides and to determined the nature of insecticidal action was examined by dermal, oral and contact treatments. As an alternative to synthetic ones, plants have been received much attention as a source of pesticidal active secondary metabolites such as phenolics, terpenoids and alkaloids. The effect of water extracts prepared from the leaves of Ipomea carnea (Linn.) Convolvulacea and Pedalium murex (Linn.) Pedaliacea and Adhatoda vasica (Linn.) Acanthacea on the biology, nutritional indices and digestive enzymes of the polyphagous pest Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) was investigated. Increased larval and pupal mortality and drastically decreased larval growth were recorded in the experimental extracts treated caterpillars. Feeding efficiency and feacal excrement were also greatly affected. The digestive enzymes profiles were decreased by the plant extract treatments. Furthermore, they were facilitating the active and easy proliferation of the chemicals for the subsequent pathogens of larvae. Among the three application methods tested, oral treatment caused the highest toxicity, followed by topical application and contact treatment. From this study clearly revealed about the active secondary metabolites were arrested or restricted the ecdyseal process during the moulting period of experimental pest. These results suggest that the three plant species tested may have potential for use as natural bio-pesticides.
  B. Joseph and S. Sujatha
  In the present study, we evaluated antimicrobial activity of clove oil against a range of food borne pathogens like bacteria and fungal autochthonous microorganisms and study the bioactive compounds present in the clove oil (dry) and its bioactivity. The Syzygium aromaticum Clove oil (extracted) and acetone based extracted clove oil analyzed by GC-MS. It contains a three higher peak as well as three lowest peak important phytochemical compounds such as Eugenol, a-cubebene, Iso-eugenitol and a-copaene, β-Caryophyllene oxide and β-Bipinene, respectively. The GC-MS analysis showed the presence of various secondary bioactive compounds and its antimicrobial activity of dried clove oil and crude extract against pathogenic bacteria like gram positive (seven) and three Gram negative (Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. and Klepsiella pneumoneae). This results showed that the relative analysis of acetone extract (50%) of crude clove extract and clove oil as a natural autochthonous antimicrobial agent on some food spoilage gram negative as well as gram positive bacteria. The oil was found to be very effective with a lowest minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of 2.5% (v/v) against Staphylococcus epidermidis and Staphyl sp. amongst the fungi, Aspegillus niger and Rhizopus sp., was found to be highly sensitive to the oil. Sorbic acid (std food preservative) was used as a positive control. Clove oil was found to be more effective when compared to both clove extract and Sorbic acid. This study shows the potential of clove oil to be used as food bio-preservative.
  S. Sujatha and S. Silja
  Phosphoinositide 3-kinase is a one of the considerable interest in obtaining selective inhibitors of the isoform as novel cancer therapeutics. Docking score and Glide energy between the ligand 3-[4-amino-1-(propan-2-yl)-1H-pyrazolo [3,4-d]pyrimidin-3-yl] and the protein Phosphoinositide 3-kinase is -7.41, -5.20 from this values revealed that fine interaction between the docked molecules with the PI 3-K. Since the anti- inflammatory ligands 5-chloropyridin-2-amine got the docking score is -10.341 and Glide energy is -63.07 higher than the rest of the two docked compounds in PI 3-K. This glide energy is less than the original ligand which is present in the meanwhile, these two ligands showed the same active site which were present in carbonic anhydrase original ligand like VAL 882, ASP 964 and GLU 880. Hence the present study suggests that compound with further in vitro and in vivo testing can be introduced as an effective inhibitor against this target that is docked. The exact role of the individual isoforms is more potent and selective compound of this type would not only be useful as potential drugs, but also as biological tools to help establish the roles of individual PI3K isoforms in cellular system.
  S. Sujatha and J. Jemima Shalin
  Nature has always been stands as a golden mark to amplify the outstanding phenomenon of symbiosis. Ayurvedic remedies for diabetes are usually mixed formulations containing blood sugar lowering herbs in combinations with immunomodulator, detoxicants with the rationale behind such formulations being provided by modern research. Polyherbal formulations have plant-based pharmacological agents which may exert synergistic, potentiative, agonistic antagonistic actions by virtue of its diverse active principles within themselves. These pharmacological principles work together in a dynamic way to produce maximum therapeutic efficiency with minimum side effects. Medicinal plants existing even before human being made their appearance on the earth. The development procedures of herbal drugs for world-wide use has to been different form that of synthetic drugs. The raw materials for Ayurvedic medicines were mostly obtained from plant sources in the form of crude drugs such as dried herbal powders or their extracts or mixture of products or mixture of product. Apart from these systems there has been a rich heritage of Ethno-botanical usage of herbs by various colorful tribal communities in the country. Hence, the present review provides the supportive evidence consideration of a therapeutic approach combining the beneficial effects of Polyherbal preparation in association with adaptive physical activity for effective management of diabetic complications.
  S. Sujatha and N. Pappa
  Performance of the gain scheduled Generic Model Controller (GMC) in tracking the batch reactor's optimal temperature profile is considered here. The chosen optimal reactor temperature profile has three switching time interval is obtained by solving optimal control problem off-line by using genetic algorithm. The temperature profile or variation in set point in each time interval is maintained by the proposed controller. The GMC controller parameters are tuned based on the Swarm Intelligence Optimization techniques as Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO) and Bacterial Foraging PSO (BF-PSO) for three switching intervals separately and the integrated performance of gain scheduled GMC has been tested with the batch reactor. The performance of the gain scheduled GMC controller is compared with the single tuned GMC and it provided minimum performance index Integral Square Error (ISE) and Integral Absolute Error (IAE) with improved response for multiple set point tracking.
  S. Behin Sam , S. Sujatha , A. Kannan and P. Vivekanandan
  Distributed Denial of Service (DDOS) attacks have emerged as a prevalent way to shut an organization off from the internet and has resulted in financial losses to the same. In the case of DDOS attack, an adversary attempts to disconnect network elements by disabling the communication links or nodes. The effectiveness of DDOS defenses depends on factors such as the specific attack scenario and various characteristics of the network routers. However, little research has focused on the nature of the network`s topology that can also be an effective DDOS defense. This study focuses on the adversaries who try to disable the communication links. It stresses the need for either a strong connectivity or m-connectivity among the nodes (routers). This approach will discourage the adversary from attempting to disable the network, as the cost for causing the damage will increase. Validation of this approach was performed using a network simulator and the results are shown.
  Baby Joseph , S. Nightingale Sheeba , S. Sujatha and K. Thanalakshmi
  Antibiograms are often taken into account to define a rational selection of an empirical antimicrobial therapy for human internal fluids of treating patients with hospital-acquired infections. This study has performed a paired comparison between the antibiogram constructed with laboratory-based data and that formed with data subjected to prior clinical validation. Hence, the study was designed to determine the antibiogram of the various species of resistant pathogenic bacterium associated with hospital-acquired infection on human internal ascitic fluids. Cumulative resistance rates were estimated in parallel at the laboratory with the whole data and at the infection control department with data subjected to prior clinical validation. Results shows that no significant differences survived (p>0.05) between the percentage of isolates resistant from the infection-based system and laboratory-based system for all antimicrobial-resistant organisms studied, except methicillin resistance in Staphylococcus species. The mean difference in percentage resistance was higher from the infection-based system than the laboratory-based system for S. aureus (mean difference + 8%, p<0.001) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (mean difference, + 9%, p<0.001). Overall, hospital antibiograms reflected susceptibility patterns among isolates associated with hospital-acquired infections. Thus, in conclusion, the Laboratory-based data underestimates the frequency of several major resistant organism in-patients with hospital-acquired infection. Previous clinical validation of the individual susceptibility reports seems to be a suitable strategy to get more reliable data.
  S. Sujatha , S. Jeyaparvathy and M. Jasmine Priya
  The objective of this study was to determine the bacterial pathogen and gene content of the Etroplus suratensis (pathogenic shrimp). PCR-based subtractive hybridization method detected with the help of Escherichia coli on shrimp liver and granulose cells for efficiently detecting the DNAs and applies in to liver pathogen. Seventeen DNAs specific to a mono-key colonizing strain (J140) were obtained by subtractive hybridization against an unrelated strain whose genome has been fully sequenced (ABO18799). Among the seventeen different clones 14 were unique and other three numbers were each represented at twice. Nine of the clones DNAs were found by sequencing to be absent or very divergent from those in the same direction on disappeared blank region of this liver and granulosa cells. Nine others had no database match with proteins of assigned function. PCR tests of 13 unrelated E.coli strains by using primer specific for 12 subtracted clones and complementary southern hybridizations indicated that these DNAs are highly polymorphic in the E. coli population with each strain yielding a different pattern of gene-specific PCR amplification. When described about this Polymorphic immune response gene, it helps to identify the previously unknown virulent genes in the pathogens and it provides a new insight of microbial genetic diversity and evolution.
  S. Sujatha and Baby Joseph
  This research mainly focused the objective is to study the effect of tapioca based oligidic diet and its effect on growth and reproductive parameters in tobacco caterpillar larvae of Spodoptera litura (Fabricious). These results indicated an artificial diet for mass rearing of the tobacco caterpillar Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) from the neonate to adult stage was developed at 27±1°C, 65±5% RH and 16:8 h scoto/photo-phase regime. The impact of a tapioca-based artificial diet on the developmental rate, life history parameters and fertility was examined over five consecutive generations for the Spodoptera litura armyworm Hubner (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a highly polyphagous pest of many agricultural crops. The study showed that when fed the tapioca-based artificial diet during larval stage, larval and pupal developmental period, percentage of pupation, pupal weight, emergence rate of male and female, longevity, fecundity and hatching were non-significantly different than that of the control agar-based artificial diet. Moreover, the cost to rear on tapioca-based diet approached 2.13 times less than the cost of rearing on the agar-based artificial diet. The mean biological parameters based on rearing of ten continuous generations showed higher pupation (67.0±3.2), emergence (77.0±5.6) and fecundity (234.2±50.1 eggs) as compared to the most preferred natural food, castor leaf whose respective recorded values are 80, 75, 60% and 480 eggs. The artificial diet developed is suitable for mass rearing S. litura successfully throughout the year for laboratory and field experimentation as well as for commercial production of nuclear polyhedrosis viruses.
  S. Sujatha , L.S. Vidya and G.S. Sumi
  Diversity, ubiquity of anti-predator adaptations has an important direct effect of info-chemical based phenomenon of prey and predator as well as prey density. This work explained three agricultural pests having info-chemical cues also influence the predatory efficiency of the reduviid predator of Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.). In this context, the aim of this study was to identify the prey-predator interaction with specific chemical cues on biological control agent of Rhynocoris fuscipes treated with three agriculturally important pests. The polyphagous reduviid predator Rhynocoris fuscipes (Fab.) (Heteroptera: Reduviidae) is a potential biocontrol agent for the red cotton bug Dysdercus cingulatus (Fabricius), tobacco caterpillar, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) Lepidoptera: Noctuiidae) and castor pest Achaea janata (Linn.). The influence of info-chemicals from these three species of groundnut pests on the prey-searching and probing behaviour of the reduviid predator was studied. The water fraction of the mixture of chloroform and methanol extract of A. janata elicited maximum response in R. fuscipes when compared with S. litura and D. cingulatus. Adults and fifth instars were consumed more time with A. janata extracts as compared to other instars. Minimum and maximum response was observed in case of S. litura and D. cingulatus extract. Among the five life stages fifth and adult stages of the R. fuscipes predators preferred fifth instar of A. janata, S. litura where as fourth and fifth nymphal instars were quickly preferred third to fifth instars of D. cingulatus. These findings could be used in the application of R. fuscipes as a biocontrol agent in the management of cotton, castor and groundnut pests.
  S. Sujatha and B. Joseph
  Aim of the present study was planned to assess the biodiversity of the marine environment around the Muttom coastal region and then to isolate and characterized the secondary metabolites from the eleven sponges and screen them for their mosquito larvicidal effect. Due to increasing resistance of the vectors mosquitoes causing diseases of importance in public health, to chemical insecticides, is necessary the searching for alternative control methods, as the use of marine sponges extracts with insecticide activity, owing to its capacity of biodegradation and generation of minor environmental damage. In this work the insecticide activity is evaluated for the mixture of chloroform with methanol extracts of the eleven marine sponges on stadium V instar larvae of Aedes aegypti (L.) and Culex quinquefasciatus (L.) in conditions of laboratory (25°C and 75% Relative Humidity). The sponge extracts of Clathria gorgonoids and Callyspongia diffusa was found to be the most effective against A. aegypti larvae showed LC50 values at <50 ppm. A result demonstrates that Ircinia campana extract is most active against two insects, as long as the extract of Sigmadocia carnosa has a higher toxic effect on Aedes aegypti than on Culex quinquefasciatus. Between the sponges Clathria gorgonoids and Callyspongia diffusa were found to be more active towards both larvicidal and insecticidal properties. In view of both these activities, the subsequent sponges Haliclona pigmentifera, Sigmadocia carnosa, Petrosia similes and Ircinia fusca could be used to obtain novel pesticidal molecules.
  Baby Joseph , D. Pradeep and S. Sujatha
  This study was carried out to evaluate the haematology and histology of the three main organs such as liver, kidney and intestine from the polluted water (Parvathyputhanar river) and fresh water (Karmana river). The release of heavy metals into the aquatic environment causes water pollution problems the blood cells although, liver, kidney and intestine like organs changes demonstrated by microtomy technique of histopathology. Haematological observation between fresh water and polluted water living A. testudineus: Haematocrit (PCV) was found decreased to 16%. A similar reduction was also observed in the haemoglobin content (4.8 g/100 mL). For instance, the haematological variation indicates in the Parvathiputhanar fish is due to this canal possessed slightly on the alkaline (7.1-8.5). Differential blood cells count also affected and glycogen levels were elevated in the polluted water living fish compared with fresh water A. testudineus. When compared these two different water bodies such as Parvathyputhanar and Karamana (polluted and unpolluted) collected fish A. testudiensis shows necrosis of tubular epithelium, cloudy swelling of epithelial cells of renal tubules, narrowing of the tubular lumen and contraction of the glomerulus and expansion of space inside the Bowman's capsule were observed in the kidney tissues than Karamanayar river. Moreover, hepatic lesions in fish living with Parvathyputhanar are characterized by hypertrophy of hepatocytes, cloudy degeneration, congestion, karyolysis, dilatation of sinusoids and focal necrosis. From this study focusing histopathological findings suggest the acidic and other heavy metal impurities caused severe damages as well as alterations occurred into the internal organs of fish and consequently change the physiological status. While, the polluted Parvathyputhanar River utilized by a peoples these findings highlight the need for adequate water treatment.
  S. Roseline Kantida , K.R.T. Asha and S. Sujatha
  Microbial corrosion is recognized as one of the major problem in various fields during favorable environment for biological growth that causes fouling and corrosion problems. In the present study, an attempt has been made to evaluate the biocidal and corrosion inhibitory effect of three seaweed extracts such as Turbinaria, Jania and Gelidiella on mild steel. Among the three seaweed extracts Turbinaria ornate showed a highest biocidal effect (84%) followed by Gelidiella acerosa (73%) and Jania adhaerens (71%) mainly this biocidal efficiency was revealed to be concentration dependent. The antibacterial activity of the seaweed extracts were tested against Bacillus sp., Micrococcus sp., (Gram+ve, g+ve) Klebsiella sp., Pseudomonas sp., (Gram-ve, g-ve). All the three seaweeds showed superior antibacterial activity. Pseudomonas was found to relatively resistant to all the three seaweeds. The seaweed extracts found to inhibit corrosion of mild steel for both seawater and 0.5 N HCl. Whenever, concentration of seaweed extracts increased the corrosion inhibition efficiency also been increased. While, 90.7% corrosion inhibition was achieved seawater added with Turbinaria extracts. Relatively Gelidiella sp., showed least inhibitory effect in seawater. Moreover, in seawater the Turbinaria extracts showed peak corrosion inhibitory activity range was 76.49% in acid medium. Meanwhile, minimum and maximum antifouling activity also observed on seaweed extracts such as Jania adhaerens and Gelidiella acerosa. The results indicated that marine seaweed could provide an important source of natural antibacterial, anti fouling as well as anticorrosion activity possessed bioactive compounds and that the interaction between marine microbial floras cannot easily be generated.
  Baby Joseph , S. Sujatha and J.R. Anusha
  The aim of this study was to identify the antibacterial and mosquito larvicidal activity of the Hemidesmus indicus (Linn.) root extract with five diferent solvents. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of extraction from Hemidesmus indicus roots on five different solvents activity against the pathogenic and non-pathogenic organisms also larvae of the Culex qinquifasciatus mosquito. H. indicus (L.) is one of the plants used in Ayurveda for several remedies it belongs to the family Asclepiadaceae. The experimental roots were tested for their phytochemical constituents and antimicrobial activity against twelve human pathogenic bacteria microorganisms using standard disc diffusion method. Moreover, the methanol and petroleum ether extracts were active against most of the tested organisms as they showed potential phytochemical constituents. The antimicrobial activities of the extracts were compared with their respective reference antibiotics as Minimum Inhibitory Concentrations (MICs). Apart from petroleum ether, all other solvent extracts such as ethanol, methanol, chloroform and aqueous extract showed significant results. Among the 12 bacterial species maximum inhibition zone was 16.00±0.18, 10.65±0.19 and 16.3±0.20 observed the following bacteria such as E. coli, P. mirabilis and S. typhimurium respectively. The larvicidal effect of aqueous extracts of H. indicus roots were tested against Culex quinquefasciatus larvae at the concentrations of 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5% up to three days also after two days, 100% larval mortality has been observed at 5% concentration of root extract with aqueous solution (dist.water). From this results clearly showed solvent extracts of H. indicus (Linn.) root could be act as an antibacterial as well as larvicidal activity.
 
 
 
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