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Articles by S. Subramaniam
Total Records ( 2 ) for S. Subramaniam
  H.N. Jasem , Z.A. Zukarnain , M. Othman and S. Subramaniam
  When using of the Internet increased dramatically; the congestion avoidance problem became even more important. The congestion is usually caused by the multiplexing for packets when the packets are at the bottleneck links. Efficiency and fairness are the important metrics in the performance of congestion avoidance mechanisms. And also all of the researches for the congestion avoidance algorithms, interest about this parameters metrics to evaluate the performance of the algorithms. This research studied the performance of the New-Additive Increase Multiplicative Decrease (AIMD) algorithm as one of the core protocols for the TCP congestion avoidance and control mechanism. In addition, to evaluate the effect of using the AIMD algorithm after its development to measure the efficiency and fairness and find new enhancement results for our approach, which named as the New-AIMD algorithm. The NCTUns simulator is used to obtain the results after implementing the modifications to the mechanism.
  N. Johari , C.L. Keng , X. Rathinam , U.R. Sinniah and S. Subramaniam
  In vitro grown shoots of Brassia rex orchid hybrid was cryopreserved by means of plant vitrification solution 2 (PVS2) technique. For the preculture treatment, the shoots were excised into two standard sizes of 0.5-1.0 and 1.0-1.5 cm and were precultured on half-strength Murashige and Skoog (MS) semi solid medium supplemented with different concentrations of sucrose (control (0.06 M), 0.1, 0.25, 0.5 and 0.75 M) for 24 and 48 h. For the PVS2 dehydration treatment, the 0.1 M precultured (48 h and 1.0-1.5 cm) shoots were chosen for further experiment where the shoots were dehydrated in PVS2 solution at various durations (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min) at 0 and 24°C for positive and negative storage in Liquid Nitrogen (LN). The viability of the cryopreserved cells were determined by 2, 3, 5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) assay and chlorophyll extraction techniques. The best condition of PVS2 treatment was at 20 min of PVS2 treatment at 0°C prior to storage in liquid nitrogen. In chlorophyll determination based on chlorophyll assay, the highest concentration of total chlorophyll concentration (56.250 μg g-1) was obtained from shoots that were dehydrated for 25 min in PVS2 solution at 0°C without storage in liquid nitrogen.
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