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Articles by S. Singh
Total Records ( 11 ) for S. Singh
  S. L. Dwivedi , N. Puppala , H. D. Upadhyaya , N. Manivannan and S. Singh
  Crop improvement and the dissection of complex genetic traits require germplasm diversity. A core collection is a gateway for the use of diverse accessions with beneficial traits in applied breeding programs. Valencia germplasm consisting of 630 peanut (Arachis hypogaea L. ssp. fastigiata var. fastigiata) accessions from the USDA collection and a check cultivar, New Mexico Valencia C, were evaluated for 26 descriptors in an augmented design for two seasons. The accessions were stratified by country of origin, and data on morphological and agronomic descriptors were used for clustering following Ward's method. About 10% or a minimum of one accession from each cluster and region were selected to develop core subset of 77 accessions. Comparison of means between the core subset and the entire collection indicated that the genetic variation available for these traits in the entire collection has been preserved in the core subset. The similarity in correlation coefficients in the entire collection and core subset suggests that this core subset has preserved most of the coadapted gene complexes controlling these associations. Peanut breeders engaged in improving the genetic potential of Valencia peanuts will find this core subset useful in cultivar development.
  D. Shukla , S. Chakraborty , S. Singh and B Mishra
  Background and the purpose of the study: This investigation deals with risperidone cyclodextrin (CD) complexation for parenteral administration to improve its aqueous solubility which would be beneficial over immediate and sustained release formulations available in market especially for agitated and non-cooperative psychotic patients.
Methods: The phase solubility study of the drug with β-CD, hydroxypropyl (HP)-β-CD and γ-CD was conducted and CDs with higher stability constants were selected for complexation. The complexes of Risperidone with β-CD and HP-β-CD were prepared by precipitation and vacuum drying methods, respectively. Fourier transform-infrared, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry techniques were used for characterization of complexes. Drug precipitation study of complex's solution in water for injection and 100 ml of 0.1 M pH 7.4 phosphate buffer saline and stability study in accelerated condition were also carried out.
Results: The stability constants of the CD were in the following order: β-CD (341.953±11.87 M-1) > HP-β-CD (170.817± 5.93 M-1) > γ-CD (93.716 ± 3.25 M-1). CDs with high stability constants were selected to prepare the drug CD complex. The complexation efficiencies of β-CD and HP-β-CD were 95.23 ± 2.27% and 97.59 ±1.97%, respectively. Both types of CDs exhibited complexation at 1:2 molar stoichiometric ratio. The drug precipitation study indicated complete solubility (100% drug dissolution) without a trace of precipitate within 5 mins. The complexes were found to be stable for a period of 3 months under accelerated stability conditions.
Major conclusion: Stable complexes of risperidone were successfully formulated using both β-CD and HP-β-CD by simple and highly efficient methods of complexation for parenteral administration.
  T. Cherian , S. Singh and T. Thomas
  The aim of the present study is to evaluate the role autonomic receptors in initiating neurogenic contractions and the role of post-synaptic alpha adrenergic receptors in controlling the contractility of the ovine ureter. Isolated sheep ureter strips were studied to clarify the autonomic receptor functions by investigating the actions of selective agonists and antagonists. Noradrenaline shows a well pronounced excitatory effect on uretero-pelvic and vesicular regions which can be blocked by phenoxybenzamine, a non-selective alpha adrenergic receptor blocker. Selective blockade of alpha-1 receptors with prazosin did not inhibit the action noradrenaline but yohimbine, a selective alpha-2 receptor blocker, abolished the effect of noradrenaline in pelvic, proximal and vesicular regions of the ureter. Selective blockade of alpha-1 receptors with prazosin inhibit the action of noradrenaline all regions of the ureter except pelvic, proximal and vesicular regions of the ureter. Clonidine, a selective alpha-2 agonist, produced a significant contractile effect on the ureter in the pelvic, proximal and vesicular regions but not significant effect on the rest of the regions of the ureter. Phenylephrine, a selective alpha-1 receptor agonist show remarkable contractile effect on all parts of the ureter except the pelvic, proximal and vesicular regions. High intensity, high frequency, short duration stimuli applied on spontaneously contracting ureteral segments show enhancement of contraction which can be blocked by pretreating the preparation with phenoxybenzamine and tetrodotoxin (TTX). This study suggests that post-synaptic receptors responsible for the mediation of the stimulatory action of noradrenaline are of the alpha-2 subtype in the pelvic, proximal and vesicular regions of the ureter and alpha-1 in the rest of the regions.
  R. Roy , S. Singh and S. Pujari
  The 7 days old chicks, Gallus domesticus were fed with a diet supplemented with 2.5%, 5% and 10% of ω-3 enriched PUFA (containing 180mg of eciosapentaenoic acid and 120mg docosahexaenoic acid per gram oil) for a period of 30 days. Dietary supplementation of PUFA promotes the growth of the birds that was reflected in the elevation of tissue protein, cholesterol and phospholipid along with a reduction in tissue triglycerides concentrations. Accumulation of ω-3 PUFA along with the depletion of ω-6 PUFA, oleic acid, myristic acid and stearic acid in the tissues was detected. Supplementations of 10% ω-3 enriched PUFA promote the health status of the bird as evident from 20% increase in the haemoglobin concentration of blood, 60% decrease in the serum LDH activity and with no change in the serum cholesterol profiles. 75% reduction in HMG CoA reductase activity along with 62% augmentation of the HMG CoA synthase activity in the liver was recorded which suggest the alteration of cholesterol metabolism in the bird.
  N.S. Gill , S. Singh , R. Arora and M. Bali
  During the past few decades, the drugs from natural products have gained importance in the field of medicine. Many plants and their products exhibit marked pharmacological activities. Lagenaria siceraria fruit is one of the important natural plant which is used in the treatment of various disorders. The present study was designed to investigate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and analgesic potential of ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria seeds. The Lagenaria siceraria seeds were evaluated for their antioxidant potential by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl method. The extract showed significant antioxidant potential in a dose dependent manner as compared to ascorbic acid. The extract showed maximum scavenging activity i.e., 75.19% at 200 μg by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging method. Thus, it was further studied for anti-inflammatory activity by Carrageenan induced rat paw edema and analgesic activity by Tail immersion method and Hot plate method at different concentrations i.e., 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1. The results showed that ethanolic extract of Lagenaria siceraria seeds possess good therapeutic potential and may be useful as a natural antioxidant and it can be used in the treatment of inflammation and pain.
  S. Singh , A. Mehta , S. Baweja , L. Ahirwal and P. Mehta
  Andrographis paniculata and Silybum marianum are well known medicinal plants. However, to prove their efficacy for clinical utilization more scientific data are needed. Therefore, in the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the anticancer potential of hydroalcoholic extracts of A. paniculata and S. marianum and their combination (1:1). The sulphorhodamine B (SRB) assay was used to assess growth inhibition of human tumor. Five human cancer cell lines i.e., human breast adenocarcinoma (MCF-7), human cervix (SiHa), Colon (HT-29), Ovary cancer cell line (ovcar-5) and Liver (HepG2) were used for the above study. The results obtained suggest that S. marianum hydroalcoholic extract showed the best cytotoxic activity against all given cell lines with percentage inhibition of 21.34, 32.30, 46.56, 59.58, 36.20 for MCF 7, SiHa, HT-29, Ovcar-5 and HepG2, respectively. While, A. paniculata hydroalcoholic extract was found most effective against Ovcar-5 with 51.12% inhibition. The combination of both the plants (1:1) showed an intermediate result for all the cell line but, it was found to be most effective against HepG2 with 42.76% inhibition. The results obtained in the study indicate that A. paniculata and S. marianum possess significant anticancer activity and have the therapeutic potential to prevent the cancerous diseases.
  M. B. Pandey , A. K. Singh , U. Singh , S. Singh and V. B. Pandey
  A new chalcone glycoside, chalcone-2′,4-dihydroxy-4′-O-β-D-glucoside has been isolated from Rhamnus nipalensis together with sitosterol, lupeol, di-O-methyldaidzein, kaempferol-4′-methylether, quercetin, physcion, sitosterol glucoside, emodin and their structures established by spectroscopic data. Isolation of these compounds are the first report from this plant.
  S.M. Yadav , R.K. Patil , Rai Ajay Kumar , L.P. Balai , S. Singh and Ram Niwas
  The weekly survey carried out from first week of October to fourth week of January, 2008-09, revealed that the maximum disease incidence of Penicillium rot was observed to the tune of 4.93, 4.35 and 2.89% at Vegetable Market, Juni Shak Market, Station Road, Anand and Horticulture Farm Shop, A.A.U., Anand, respectively. The disease incidence of various rots (Penicillium, Alternaria, Colletotrichum, Aspergillus, Phomopsis and other rots) were found maximum at Vegetable Market and Juni Shak Market, Anand than the Horticulture Farm Shop, Anand. The pure culture was obtained from surveyed of aonla fruit and sent for identification to Indian Type Culture Collection (I.T.C.C.), Division of Mycology and Plant Pathology, I.A.R.I., New Delhi and was identified as a new recorded the Penicillium funiculosum (ITCC: 7046.08).
  S. Singh , B. Bikram , J. Mishra , P. Trivedi , Rai Ajay Kumar , S. M. Yadav and Asha Sinha
  To encounter the acute shortage of properly decomposed organic manure the present study was conducted for investigating the pattern of decomposition of the temple waste. Isolation of the fungi from decomposing temple waste and soil mixed with manure was done by direct observation method, damp chamber incubation method and dilution plate technique. Total 28 fungus were isolated and highest fungal population was recorded by dilution plate technique followed by damp chamber and then direct observation method and according to their occurrence they were divided into three categories (1) Dominant fungi which show 70% frequency, (2) Common fungi which shows less than 70% frequency and (3) Rare fungi were observed once or twice during isolation. The moisture content of the decomposing temple waste recorded maximum 29.65% at 15 days of intervals. Deuteromycotina fungi were recorded highest 64.28% in comparison to Zygomycotina (7.14%) and Ascomycotina (3.5%). In early stages of infection Mucor racemosus, Rhizopus nigricans Alternaria alternata, Fusarium spp. were found abundantly but in later stages of decomposition prevalence of Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus fumigates, Aspergillus candidus, Penicillium rubrum, Penicillium citrinum was recorded. During the process of decomposition the moisture content of the temple waste gradually decreases whereas changes in pH follow an erratic pattern due to the activity of above mentioned mycoflora throughout the process of biodegradation.
  S. Singh , B.S. Sathpathy , R.K. Sahoo , E. Subudhi and S. Nayak
  The essential oil from the rhizomes of Roma cultivar of turmeric (Curcuma longa) from Orissa was examined for its antimicrobial activity against the pathogens causing eye infections. The purpose of this study was to authenticate the use of turmeric rhizome oil against eye infections so as to giving an approach to formulate turmeric rhizome oil as potential eye drop in place of traditional antibiotics after undertaking its in vivo pharmacological studies. Essential oil from rhizomes of Roma cultivar obtained by hydrodistillation extraction method using clenevger apparatus. The antimicrobial effects of oil towards Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aerugenosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger were tested by Inhibition Zone Diameter (IZD) test to screen the antimicrobial activity, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) test and Minimum Killing Time (MKT) test to determine the minimum concentration of oil and minimum time required to kill the pathogens. Oil showed very good activity against all four microbial strains used at concentration of 10 μL except Pseudomonas sp. Very low concentration of 1.95 μL mL-1 oil was needed to inhibit the growth of most highly infecting pathogen Staphylococcus aureus within 15 min of its exposure in comparison to other microbial strains. High turmerone content (49.76%) of elite turmeric cultivar Roma released from Orissa (India) might be assigned to be responsible for such excellent anti microbial activity against the tested pathogens.
  H.P. Singh , S. Singh and J. Singh
  The speech signal is degraded due to delay, jitter and packet losses, when passed through different network layers of internet protocol based Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) system. The speech quality of the VoIP system can be improved by reducing the background noise, codec distortions and various network impairments such as packet loss, delay and jitter. The work in this paper proposes the Finite Impulse Response filter (FIR) based scheme for speech quality improvement of the VoIP signal. The lab experiment is performed to realize the VoIP system and to obtain the degraded database. For various noisy conditions, the performance of the enhanced VoIP signal is evaluated using Perceptual Evaluation of Speech Quality (PESQ) measurement for narrowband signal. The results show much improvement in speech quality with proposed method.
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