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Articles by S. Sharma
Total Records ( 11 ) for S. Sharma
  H.P.S. Nagi , J. Kaur , B.N. Dar and S. Sharma
  Both full fat and defatted cereal brans were blended with wheat flour at different levels to prepare nutritive biscuits. Product making, sensory and texture quality were assessed to find out the most appropriate level of bran incorporation. On the basis of quality (spread ratio and sensory by a panel of judges), 20% level was selected best. Acceptability of enriched biscuits was affected with progressive storage, however, the product remained in high acceptability range upto 3 months. Free fatty acids content of biscuits were within permissible limits after three months of storage except rice bran (full fat) biscuits. Packaging material had significant impact on biscuit quality. The biscuits were stored safely in both packaging material i.e., HDPE and laminate. Microbiological study depicted that microbial count was far below the permissible limits upto three months of storage of biscuits in HDPE and laminate at room temperature. Economics of enriched biscuits revealed that wheat bran enriched biscuits were economically profitable.
  J Rawlins , F Carre , G Kervio , M Papadakis , N Chandra , C Edwards , G.P Whyte and S. Sharma
 

Background— Ethnicity is an important determinant of cardiovascular adaptation in athletes. Studies in black male athletes reveal a higher prevalence of electric repolarization and left ventricular hypertrophy than observed in white males; these frequently overlap with those observed in cardiomyopathy and have important implications in the preparticipation cardiac screening era. There are no reports on cardiac adaptation in highly trained black females, who comprise an increasing population of elite competitors.

Methods and Results— Between 2004 and 2009, 240 nationally ranked black female athletes (mean age 21±4.6 years old) underwent 12-lead ECG and 2-dimensional echocardiography. The results were compared with 200 white female athletes of similar age and size participating in similar sports. Black athletes demonstrated greater left ventricular wall thickness (9.2±1.2 versus 8.6±1.2 mm, P<0.001) and left ventricular mass (187.2±42 versus 172.3±42 g, P=0.008) than white athletes. Eight black athletes (3%) exhibited a left ventricular wall thickness >11 mm (12 to 13 mm) compared with none of the white athletes. All athletes revealed normal indices of systolic and diastolic function. Black athletes exhibited a higher prevalence of T-wave inversions (14% versus 2%, P<0.001) and ST-segment elevation (11% versus 1%, P<0.001) than white athletes. Deep T-wave inversions (–0.2 mV) were observed only in black athletes and were confined to the anterior leads (V1 through V3).

Conclusions— Systematic physical exercise in black female athletes is associated with greater left ventricular hypertrophy and higher prevalence of repolarization changes than in white female athletes of similar age and size participating in identical sporting disciplines. However, a maximal left ventricular wall thickness >13 mm or deep T-wave inversions in the inferior and lateral leads are rare and warrant further investigation.

  C. Kerry , S. Mitchell , S. Sharma , A. Scott and G. Rayman
 

Aim

To determine whether diurnal temporal variations in hypoglycaemic frequency occur in hospitalized patients.

Methods

Hypoglycaemic events were identified in a snapshot bedside audit of capillary blood glucose results from diabetes charts of all inpatients receiving insulin or a sulphonylurea (with or without insulin) on 2 days separated by 6 weeks. Additionally, capillary blood glucose measurements were remotely captured over 2 months, in the same category of patients, and analysed for temporal patterns. Hypoglycaemia was defined as ‘severe’ when the capillary blood glucose was < 3.0 mmol/l and ‘mild’ when the capillary blood glucose was between 3.0 and 3.9 mmol/l.

Results

The bedside audit found that 74% of those audited experienced a hypoglycaemia event. Eighty-three per cent of all hypoglycaemic events and 70% of severe events were recorded between 21.00 and 09.00 h. This was confirmed in the longer duration remote monitoring study where 70% of all hypoglycaemic events and 66% of severe events occurred between 21.00 and 09.00 h.

Conclusion

Hypoglycaemia occurs more frequently between 21.00 and 09.00 h in hospitalized patients receiving treatments that can cause hypoglycaemia. This may be related to insufficient carbohydrate intake during this period, and is potentially preventable by changes in catering practice.

  S. Sharma , C. Kerry , H. Atkins and G. Rayman
 

Aims

The Ipswich Touch Test is a novel method to detect subjects with diabetes with loss of foot sensation and is simple, safe, quick, and easy to perform and teach. This study determines whether it can be used by relatives and/or carers to detect reduced foot sensation in the setting of the patient's home.

Methods

The test involves lightly and briefly (1-2 s) touching the tips of the first, third and fifth toes of both feet with the index finger. Reduced foot sensation was defined as ≥ 2 insensate areas. Patients due to attend clinic over a 4-week period were invited by post. The invitation contained detailed instructions and a sheet for recording the results. The findings were compared with those obtained in clinic using the 10-g monofilament at the same six sites.

Results

Of 331 patients (174 males), 25.1% (n = 83) had ≥ 2 insensate areas to 10-g monofilament testing. Compared with this, the Ipswich Touch Test at home had a sensitivity of 78.3% and a specificity of 93.9%. The predictive values of detecting ‘at-risk’ feet were positive at 81.2% and negative at 92.8%. The likelihood ratios were positive at 12.9 and negative at 0.23.

Conclusions

With clearly written instructions, this simple test can be used by non-professionals to accurately assess for loss of protective sensation. We believe that the Ipswich Touch Test may also be a useful educational adjunct to improve awareness of diabetes foot disease in patients and relatives alike and empower them to seek appropriate care if sensation was found to be abnormal.

  S. Angra , S. Kaur , K. Singh , D. Pathania , N. Kaur , S. Sharma and H. Nayyar
  The objective of the present study was to elucidate the metabolic bases of sensitivity of soybean genotypes during seed filling to water stress that are otherwise least understood. Here, two contrasting soybean genotypes Pb1 (stress-tolerant) and Bragg (stress-sensitive) were water stressed by holding 50% of the water compared to controls for 10 days during the onset of seed filling stage (R5 stage). These genotypes were assessed for profiles of osmolytes and antioxidants during the course of water stress in the leaves. While, both the genotypes did not differ much till 4th or 6th day of stress, the differences appeared thereafter and were prominent at 10 day (last day) of stress. In general, Pb1 genotypes experienced lesser extent of stress injury and retained greater amount of water. This was associated with higher accumulation of sucrose, free amino acids, soluble proteins and proline by this genotype as compared to Bragg, which accumulated greater content of reducing sugars. The oxidative damage as lipid peroxidation was similar in both the genotypes but Bragg genotype had higher hydrogen peroxide levels. The antioxidants like ascorbic acid, catalase and ascorbate peroxidase were expressed greatly in Pb1 genotype than in Bragg genotype while superoxide dismutase activity did not differ between the two genotypes. It was indicated that Pb 1 genotype was affected to a lesser extent by water stress due to its superior capacity to generate osmolytes and antioxidants. Additionally, the seed components such as starch and proteins of the stressed plants experienced less damage in Pb1 genotype.
  R.K. Sharma and S. Sharma
  Kalajira (Bunium persicum) is an economically and medicinally important threatened plant species of cold desert region of trans-Himalaya that needs appropriate conservation interventions. The seeds exhibit very deep dormancy which is a major restriction for its cultivation/expansion. Therefore, we have analysed the seed physiological aspects of a B. persicum population from Lahaul (Himachal Pradesh, India) with an aim to alleviate seed dormancy and/or improve germination. The freshly harvested seeds exhibited high viability (93%) as determined by tetrazolium test. The seeds, however, were completely dormant. Seed storage under ambient conditions for 42 months did not alter the dormancy/germination status. But, the viability declined gradually 18 months onward leading to about one-third loss after 42 months. Of the various dormancy breaking treatments tested (H2SO4-scarification, stratification at 4°C, leaching, KNO3, SNP, NaN3 and GA3), only the moist-stratification at 4°C (continuous) effectively released the dormancy in freshly harvested as well as differentially stored seeds. Remarkably, the seeds germinated only at low temperature (4°C); germination ceased upon shifting the seeds from 4 to 25°C. Further, the response of seeds to this treatment declined consistently with the progression of storage period. The activity of catalase, an important antioxidative enzyme in the seeds, also declined with the progression of seed storage suggesting the involvement of oxidative stress in storage-dependent changes in seed viability and responsiveness to low temperature. Involvement of phenolics in observed changes might be excluded. The findings are of potential significance for seed-based propagation of B. persicum.
  S. Sharma , A.P. Garg and G. Singh
  The present study was carried out to optimized medium composition and culture conditions to enhance the bacteriocin production from Lactococcus lactis CCSULAC1 in MRS medium. The optimum temperature and initial pH for bacteriocin production was 7.5 and 35°C, respectively. Lactococcus lactis CCSULAC1 displayed the highest bacteriocin activity when grown in modified MRS medium containing soya extract (SEMRS) as nitrogen source instead of other selective constituents. Different culture media including MRS with 1.5% tween, TGEA, TGYA, Elliker’s media were also studied for bacteriocin production. The bacteriocin showed broad antimicrobial spectrum determined by well diffusion assay against E. coli, Enterobacter sp., S. aureus, Pseudomonas sp., B. polymyxa, B. subtilis, S. typhii, Micrococcus sp. but shown no effect on Candida albicans, Shigella sp., Klebsiella sp. and S. paratyphii. Replacement of soya extract with yeast extract demonstrated the better yield of bacteriocin. The modified SEMRS is a cost effective medium that can be helpful for large scale industries.
  S. Sharma , P. Ray , J. R. Gentsch , R. I. Glass , V. Kalra and M. K. Bhan
  The prospect that rotavirus diarrhea in children may soon be prevented by vaccines has placed a new priority on understanding the diversity of rotavirus strains and the mechanism by which these strains evolve over time. We have characterized a total of 465 rotavirus strains collected in North India from 2000 to 2007 for G and P types by reverse transcription-PCR and sequencing. The novel G12 rotavirus strains recently detected in other countries were first detected in India in 2001 and have emerged as the predominant strains in Delhi, India, during 2005 to 2007. While the VP7 sequence was highly homologous among G12 strains isolated in Delhi, suggesting recent emergence from a common ancestor, the strains had a diverse constellation of other gene segments, demonstrating substantial reassortment. For the entire period, the common rotavirus G types G1 (26%), G2 (25%), and G9 (14%) comprised 65% of the strains, and common P types, P[4] (19%), P[6] (22%), and P[8] (35%), comprised 76% of the total P types. Of note, we detected a high percentage of unusual (17%) strains and fecal specimens with mixed (12% G and 15% P) rotavirus infections having a variety of genomic constellations. For the first time, we identified two novel rotavirus strains with unusual G/P combinations, G2P[11] and G3P[11], in patients with diarrhea. The study highlights the great diversity among rotaviruses isolated from Indian children, the opportunity for genetic reassortment between strains, and the emergence of a novel G12 strain in our country. Due to the demonstrated effect of antigenic diversity on rotavirus vaccines, it will be important to continue careful monitoring of these strains as rotavirus vaccine programs are implemented in India.
  S. Sharma , A.D.K. Jain , A. Aggarwal and N.S. Gill
  Imides are the biologically active compounds having different pharmacological activities such as analgesic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-depressant and anti-cancer etc. These compounds play an important role in medicinal chemistry in drug development and drug discovery. In this research novel Schiff bases of imides moiety have been synthesized which showed analgesic and anti-inflammatory activities. Novel Schiff base derivatives of imides moiety have been synthesized by multistep reaction. First step involves the reaction of phthalic anhydride with 4-amino benzaldehyde in the presence of dichloromethane which results in the formation of 4-(1,3-dioxoisoindolin-2-yl) benzaldehyde. Then, this compound on reaction with various derivatives of aniline in the presence of glacial acetic acid produced the desirable new Schiff bases. The structure of these compounds has been established by IR, 1H-NMR studies and elemental analysis. The synthesized compounds were screened for their anti-inflammatory potential using carrageenan-induced rat paw edema model and analgesic activity by tail immersion and hot plate methods in mice at different concentrations i.e., 100, 200 and 300 mg kg-1. The results showed that the Schiff bases of imide moiety possess significant therapeutic potential and can be used as analgesic and anti-inflammatory agents.
  A. Joshi , N. Kataria , S. Sharma , A. Sharma , S. Arora , Abhimanu , R. Maan , S. Asopa , N. Arya , S. Khan and A.K. Kataria
  Present investigation was launched to detect oxidative stress in pregnant and non-pregnant Murrah buffaloes during extreme ambiences. Serum oxidase and peroxidase profiling was used as a tool to detect oxidative stress. Blood samples of apparently healthy adult female Murrah buffaloes were collected to harvest sera during extreme hot cold and moderate ambiences. Moderate mean value of serum oxidase was 50.32±1.21 UL-1 and of serum peroxidase was 49.51±1.11 mUL-1. Extreme hot and cold ambiences resulted into a significant (p≤0.05) rise in the activities of serum oxidase and peroxidase. Animals were classified as non pregnant milch, pregnant milch and pregnant dry and activities of both the enzymes were compared. It was observed that mean values of both the enzymes in non-pregnant milch, pregnant milch and pregnant dry differed significantly (p≤0.05) from each other, respectively in all the ambiences. Non pregnant milch animals showed lowest activities whereas pregnant dry animals exhibited highest activities of both the enzymes. Multipara animals showed significantly (p≤0.05) higher activities than primipara. Serum oxidase and peroxidase are considered as important markers to assess oxidative stress. Increased activities of both the enzymes reflected the presence of oxidative stress in the buffaloes. It was concluded that extreme ambiences resulted into oxidative stress affecting the animals of all the physiological states. In each ambience the magnitude of increase was greater in pregnant dry animals. Trend was similar in all the ambiences but impact was maximum during hot ambience. Multipara animals showed greater changes than primipara. It can be stated that multipara and pregnant dry animals require proper care and supplementation of immuno-nutrients in order to protect them from the ensuing risk of oxidative stress. Further serum oxidase and peroxidase activities can be used effectively in detection of oxidative stress.
  R. Maan , N. Kataria , S. Sharma , S. Arora , A. Sharma , A. Joshi , N. Mohammad , P.K. Pilania and L.N. Sankhala
  Serum Monoamine Oxidase (MAO) activities were determined in the Marwari breed of sheep from arid tracts in India during extreme ambient temperature periods. Animals were categorised according to sex and age. Blood samples were collected during moderate, extreme hot and cold ambient temperatures to harvest sera. The overall mean value of MAO was 288.88±5.10 U L-1 which was obtained from 630 animals irrespective of sex and age. The range was 102-600 U L-1. Further mean values were determined according to ambient temperatures irrespective of sex and age. Moderate overall mean value was 162.14±4.61 U L-1 which was obtained from 210 animals during moderate ambience. The mean value of serum MAO was significantly (p≤0.05) higher during hot and cold ambient temperatures as compared to moderate mean value. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in all ambient temperatures. The mean values were significantly (p≤0.05) higher in male animals than female animals. Age effect showed a significant (p≤0.05) increase in the mean values being highest in the animals of 2.5-4.5 years of age. The sex and age effects were significant (p≤0.05) in all ambient temperatures. Pattern of variations in serum MAO activities indicated that oxidative stress developed in sheep due to extreme ambient temperatures. Impact of hot ambient temperature was greater than cold ambient temperature.
 
 
 
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