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Articles by S. Shahbudin
Total Records ( 12 ) for S. Shahbudin
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong , M.S. Noor Azhar , S. Shahbudin and K.C.A. Jalal
  Surface sediments collected from seven estuarine mangrove forests of Terengganu region (100 sampling points) were anaylzed for Pb, Cu and Zn using the sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The average concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn were 10.5±7.12 mg g-1 dry weights, 31.1± 16.5 mg g-1 dry weights and 20.8±13.3 mg g-1 dry weights, respectively. The statistical analysis of Pearson correlation matrix has proved that there is a significant relationship between the metal concentration and the grain size. The concentration of Pb, Cu and Zn decreased with the decrease of mean size particle, suggesting their association with the fine fraction of the sediments. In this study, Enrichment Factors (EF) were calculated to assess whether the concentrations observed represent background or contaminated levels. The analysis suggests that all studied elements were considered to be dominantly terrigenous in origin. Data obtained also provides a scientific discovery and data for a better understanding and proper management of the mangrove forests of Terengganu.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Mohd Zahir , B. Akbar John , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  A study was conducted to determine the bioaccumulation of some essential and non-essential heavy metals by the soft tissue of Perna viridis (Green mussel) collected from Pekan, Pahang during November 2009. A total of fifty individuals of Green lipped mussel P. viridis (Family: Mytilidae) were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Cobalt (Co), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) concentration were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The observed mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Cu, Co, Pb and Cd in the soft edible tissue of P. viridis was 576.45±87.78, 45.54±8.75, 19.05±4.12, 17.85±2.28, 0.47±0.14 and 0.3±0.06 μg g-1, respectively. The bioaccumulation of metals in the soft tissue flowed in Fe>Zn>Cu >Co>Pb>Cd order indicating that the essential heavy metal accumulates in faster rate than non-essential metals. Comparison with earlier studies showed that Fe and Cu bioaccumulation level was higher in samples from Pekan area with average of 576.45 and 19.05 μg g-1, respectively. All the other metals concentration was lower in the soft tissue of green mussel indicating comparatively lower heavy metal contamination in the Pekan, Pahang compared with other coasts.
  S. Shahbudin , S. Deny , A.M.T. Zakirun , T.A.H. Haziyamin , B. Akbar John and M. Taher
  Present study was conducted to determine the antioxidant property of soft corals belong to the genus: Dendronephthya (Family: Nephtheidae) using α, α-Diphenyl-β-PicrylHydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging and Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC) methods using vitamin E as a positive control. Crude extracts were prepared from 4 Dendronephthya sp. using aqueous, dichoromethane: methanol and methanol extraction. All crude extracts of Dendronephthya sp. exhibited antioxidant properties and the white spots appeared during the rapid screening using Dot-Blot and 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) staining where the concentration of crude extract was 1.00 g mL-1 against the DPPH concentration of 0.4 mM. In DPPH assay, not all crude extracts showed a significant value in antioxidant activities thus it could be considered as weak free radical species scavenger. The crude extract were diluted to 1000, 500, 250, 125, 63, 31, 15, 7, 4 and 2 μg mL-1, respectively and tested against highly diluted DPPH (0.06 mM). The IC50 for all crude extracts were greater than 1000 μg mL-1. The percentage of free radical scavenging exhibited by the crude extract was at 2 μg mL-1 concentration (the lowest concentration in serial dilution) with 0.81 to 2.89%. Ferric Thiocyanate (FTC) assay, showed absorbance ranges for control, vitamin E and sample were recorded as 0.012-0.858, 0.001-0.315 and 0.001-0.886, respectively. Inhibition percentage of all the crude extract was closer to the control indicated that they are weak lipid peroxidation inhibitor. However, the aqueous extract of species A and C showed higher inhibition percentage from other extract with the percentage value of 10.8 and 10.5% , respectively.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Siti Waznah , M.C. Ong , S. Shahbudin and K.C.A. Jalal
  The percentage organic carbon content of 62 bottom estuarine sediment in Pahang river estuary were analyzed using the wet dichromate oxidation method. In this study, the organic carbon distribution ranged from 0.09 to 2.05%. The high concentration can be found near the Pahang river mouth while the low concentration occurred at upstream. The sediment particle size at the same transects were also measured with the dry sieving and laser diffraction method. The average concentration of organic carbon was 0.88% while the average grain size was 2.44 φ. In this study, the carbon organic showed a significant relationship with the mean size (p<0.05) with the organic carbon content increase with the increase of mean size values.
  K.C.A. Jalal , Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Fairuz , B. Akbar , S. Shahbudin and Y. Faridah
  Physicochemical parameters influence the vertical spatial distribution of microbial communities in any water bodies. Based on this perspective, a study on physicochemical parameters and bacterial community was carried out from five stations on January-June 2009 at the Kuantan estuary of Pahang, Malaysia. The temperature was ranged from 25.01-27.48°C, salinity fluctuation observed 0.03-25.84 ppt, Dissolved Oxygen (DO) 6.10 to 10.73 mg L-1, specific conductivity ranged from 0.10 to 42.43 mS cm-1, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) ranged from 0.05 to 26.36 g L-1) and pH varied from 5.69 to 8.11 and chlorophyll a ranged 0.01 to 1.14 μg L-1. The nitrite concentration was higher at St. 5 (0.19 mg L-1) followed by St. 4 (0.16 mg L-1) and it was lowest at St. 1 (0.13 mg L-1). Similarly, high phosphorus content (0.17 mg L-1) was found at St. 4 followed by St. 5 (0.16 mg L-1) while, it was lowest at St. 1 (0.08 mg L-1). Out of 19 isolated bacteria most dominant bacteria were Citrobacter freundii followed by Leuconostoc sp. and Staphylococcus xylosus. High bacterial colony (cfu mL-1) was observed at St. 4 (570 cfu mL-1) in water column followed by St. 5 (490 cfu mL-1). In contrary, it was lowest at St. 2 (213 cfu mL-1). Meanwhile, the highest bacterial colony in sediment was observed at St. 4 (390 cfu mL-1) followed by St. 5 (333 cfu mL-1). It was lowest observed at St. 2 (167 cfu mL-1). Nevertheless, a continuous monitoring of water quality is needed in this estuary especially at St. 4 and 5 which could be alarming in the long run due to deposition of nutrients from the outlets of fishing villages and industry sources.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , A. Siti Waznah , M.S. Mohd Zahir , M.C. Ong , S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , Z. Rina Sharlinda , A.T. Shuhada , B. Akbar John , B. Joseph , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  Bottom sediments from 62 stations at Pahang river-estuary were analyzed for the concentrations of Chromium (Cr), Manganese (Mn) and Cobalt (Co). Heavy metal concentrations were analyzed by using an Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The average dry weight concentrations of Cr, Mn and Co were 62.80±20.04, 416.21±127.41 and 7.93±3.25 μg g-1, respectively. The observed concentrations of the studied metals were significantly higher near the estuary and declining as the sampling points were further away from the estuary. The Enrichment Factors (EFs) were calculated and all elements showed metal contamination was predominantly of terrigenous in origin.
  S. Shahbudin , Z. Hafifi Hafiz , B. Akbar John , B.Y. Kamaruzzaman and K.C.A. Jalal
  Present study was conducted to determine the propagation and biodiversity of corals on artificial reefs at Teluk Kalong and Pasir Akar, Malaysia to check the feasibility of artificial reef to rehabilitate natural reef ecosystems and to provide artificial habitat for marine organisms. Two types of artificial reef deployed in these areas were Dome Reef and EnviroReef which were developed by the Dorken Company. Based on the results obtained, coral distribution was higher at Pasir Akar compared to Teluk Kalong. The Shannon diversity index (H’) and evenness index (EH’) of coral at Teluk Kalong were 0.6425 and 0.1766, respectively while the Shannon diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of coral at Pasir Akar were 1.7410 and 0.3247, respectively. Overall, 2 species were found and identified at Teluk Kalong and 10 species were at Pasir Akar with Seriatopora hystrix as the dominant species at both the stations. Coral distribution was higher on Dome Reef compared to EnviroReef. The diversity index (H’) and Pielou evenness index (EH’) of EnviroReef were 0.5359 and 0.1284 respectively while it was 2.2192 and 0.4274, respectively in Dome Reef. A total of 3 and 9 species were found and identified from the EnviroReef and Dome Reef, respectively with Seriatopora hystrix being the dominant in both the reef structures. We conclude that both artificial reefs structures were suitable as habitat for coral propagation.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , B. Akbar , K.C.A. Jalal and S. Shahbudin
  A laboratory experiment was conducted to determine the different level of accumulation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) in 21 days fingerlings tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The concentration of these metals in the gills was detected through Inductively-Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). It was observed that the tilapia fingerlings can accumulate up to 3000 ppb of Zn after 21 days of exposure. The accumulation rate of Cu at 7 to 14 days was between 0.01 to 0.02 μg kg-1 while steady increase (0.06 ppb) was detected when exposure period extended to next 7 days. Meanwhile, gradual increase in Zn accumulation was observed at all the time. The fish had accumulated up to 142 μg kg-1 of Pb at the highest concentration in 30 days of exposure proved that there is a elevated three fold increase in Pb uptake compared with first ten and 20 days of exposure. It was also proven from this study that fishes exposed to longer period with minimal concentration tend to accumulate less heavy metal in gills since the heavy metals are transported to other parts of the body.
  S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , Y. Kamaruzzaman , N. Mohammad- Noor , T. Chit Dah and B. Akbar John
  Artificial seagrass plays an important role for the distribution of benthic organisms and fishes. Based on this perspective a study was conducted in the Sepanggar Bay located in the Northern part of Kota Kinabalu, Malaysia from November 2006 to February 2007 to determine the potentiality of artificial seagrass as an alternative habitat for marine fishes. The artificial seagrass area is located approximately 100 m from the coastline at the depth between 6 and 10 m and made up of Dorken Advance Engineer Rubber which was tightened on a square 1 x 3 m metal mat. The sampling process was done by capturing photos and video recording. The picture of the fishes was taken as many as possible to increase the accuracy and precision of fish identification. A total of 497 fish species belong to 17 families were observed in 5 sampling periods throughout the study. Out of 17 families, Pomacentridae was dominant with 25.55% (127 individuals) followed by caesionidae with 22.13% (110 individuals). It was observed that Caesio sp. from a family Caesionidae was dominant genus in the artificial seagrass area, followed by Chromis sp. and Pomacentrus sp. from a family Pomacentridae. Overall Shannon diversity (H’) value of 2.5315 indicates artificial sea grass could play a vital role as a nutrient rich habitat for marine fishes.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.C. Ong , K. Zaleha and S. Shahbudin
  Muscle and feather in tissue of 40 juveniles and 40 adult green-lipped mussel Perna veridis (L.) collected from Muar Estuary, Johor were analyzed for copper (Cu), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) concentration using a fast and sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). In this study, the average concentration of Cu was 8.96 μg g-1 dry weights, Cd with 0.58 μg g-1 dry weight, Pb averaging 2.28 μg g-1 dry weights and Zn averaged to 86.73 μg g-1 dry weight. The highest accumulation of metal studied was found in feather sample compared to the muscle. The positive relationship of Cu, Cd, Pb and Zn with P. virdis length suggesting that the accumulation of these metals were formed in the mussel. In all cases, metal levels found were lower than the guideline of international standards of reference and the examined bivalve were not associated with enhanced metal content in their tissues and were safe within the limits for human consumption.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , M.S. Zahir , B. Akbar John , A. Siti Waznah , K.C.A. Jalal , S. Shahbudin , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  An effort to analyze selected heavy metal accumulation by the razor clam (Solen brevis) from Tanjung Lumpur was conducted on January to April 2010. A total of fifty individuals of Razor clam Solen brevis were sampled and metals such as Iron (Fe), Zinc (Zn), Copper (Cu), Manganase (Mn), Lead (Pb) and Cadmium (Cd) Concentrations were determined using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). Among the metals Fe occurred in elevated concentration in the soft tissue of razor clam followed by Zn. Cd was found to be in least concentration in the sample. Mean concentration of Fe, Zn, Mn, Cu, Cd and Pb in the soft tissue were 415.2±56.52, 87.74±11.85, 18.71±2.10, 8.64±1.75, 0.67±0.29 and 1.61±0.45 μg g-1 dw, respectively indicating that the bioaccumulation of essential metals in the soft tissue was greater than the non essential heavy metals. Metal accumulation in the soft tissue of razor clam followed Fe > Zn > Mn > Cu > Pb > Cd order in present study. The observed concentration of acute toxicity of metals in Solen brevis (Family: Solenidae) from Tanjung Lumpur Coastal waters was lower than the permissible limit recommended by National and international standards proved that this species could be utilized for human consumption.
  B.Y. Kamaruzzaman , N.T. Shuhada , B. Akbar , S. Shahbudin , K.C.A. Jalal , M.C. Ong , S.M. Al-Barwani and J.S. Goddard
  Surface sediment samples were collected from 5 different zones of the Langkawi coastal waters, Malaysia to determine the concentration of Lead (Pb) and Copper (Cu) by using the sensitive Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS). The concentration of heavy metals was compared with the world average concentration of shale values. It was found that the total concentration of Pb was between 12.25 and 71.38 μg g-1 dw with mean concentration value of 41.87±7.30 μg g-1 dw which was two fold higher than the average shale value (20 μg g-1). Statistical analysis showed that the significant variation in Pb concentration between different sampling stations (p<0.05). Copper (Cu) concentration was ranged between 0.40 and 30.95 μg g-1 dw with mean concentration of 11.19±5.2 μg g-1 dw which was lower than the average shale value (45 μg g-1 dw). Enrichment Factor (EF) showed that source of Pb concentration in the study area was partially due to anthropogenic activities and the source of Cu was dominantly from terrigenous in origin. Results of the analysis showed that a coastal area of Langkawi is facing moderate metal pollution with increased rate of deposition.
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