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Articles by S. Ramachandran
Total Records ( 9 ) for S. Ramachandran
  S. Ramachandran , G. Thirumurugan and M.D. Dhanaraju
  The present study aimed at the formulation of biodegradable chitosan microspheres loaded with ranitidine to overcome the poor bioavailability and frequent dose administration. Chitosan microsphere was prepared by simple emulsification technique by glutaraldehyde crosslinking. Various process variable and formulation variable such as speed of emulsification, cross linking time, drug/polymer ratio, volume of cross linking agent and volume of surfactant were optimized. Formulated microspheres were characterized for its entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release, Kinetics of drug release, surface morphology, particle size analysis, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) thermal analysis. The characterized ranitidine microsphere formulations were investigated for in vivo gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity. The characterization of the fabricated microspheres showed smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and entrapment efficiency upto 84%. The prepared microspheres exhibited a controlled drug release of 74% over a period of 24 h with initial burst release of 35% in the first 2 h. The FTIR and DSC reports showed that there was no potential drug interaction between the drug and polymer. In vivo studies shows that gastric volume, pH, total acidity and ulcer index of formulated ranitidine microspheres were significantly reduced as 2.67 mL, 5.59, 110 mEq L-1 and 1.74, respectively and also there is no evidence of extra tissue damage as seen in the biopsy report. From the data obtained it can be concluded that the chitosan microspheres could be considered as a potential biodegradable carrier for controlled drug delivery of ranitidine.
  S. Ramachandran , N. Rajendra Prasad , K.V. Pugalendi and Venugopal P. Menon
  UV radiation-induced damages may result in pre-cancerous and cancerous lesions and acceleration of skin aging. It involves an imbalance of the endogenous antioxidant system that leads to the increase of free radical levels. Antioxidant pretreatment might inhibit such imbalance. In the present study, the photoprotective effect of ursolic acid (UA; 3β-hydroxy-urs-12-en-28-oic acid), a dietary polyphenolic phytochemical, has been examined in the UVB-(280-320 nm) irradiated human blood lymphocytes. Lymphocytes pretreated with increasing concentrations of ursolic acid (1, 5 and 10 μg mL-1) for 30 min, were irradiated and lipid peroxidation and antioxidant defense were examined. UVB-irradiated lymphocytes exhibited increased levels of lipid peroxidation and disturbances in antioxidant status. Ursolic acid pretreatment resulted in significant reduction in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and lipid hydroperoxides (LPH) levels. Further, antioxidants like superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), reduced glutathione (GSH), vitamin-C (Vit-C) and vitamin-E (Vit-E) were normalised in ursolic acid pretreated plus UVB-treated lymphocytes. The maximum dose of ursolic acid (10 μg mL-1) normalized the UVB induced lipid peroxidation, indicating the photoprotective effect of ursolic acid in human peripheral lymphocytes under in vitro condition.
  S. Ramachandran , M. Vamsikrishna , K.V. Gowthami , B. Heera and M.D. Dhanaraju
  The essence of the present study is to focus on the cytotoxicity of the aqueous and alcoholic extracts of the Indian medicinal plant Agave cantula belonging to the family Agavaceae. Brine shrimp lethality bioassay method was established for the present study and the cytotoxicity was reported in terms of lethality concentration (LC50). The shrimps were hatched and active shrimps were collected and used for the assay, 10 active shrimps were added to the 0.5 mL diluted test solution and the surviving (larvae) shrimps were counted after 24 h and lethality concentration LC50 was assessed. In the present study, aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Agave cantula exhibited potent brine shrimp lethality LC50 as 15 and 12.5 mg, respectively. The present study supports that brine shrimp bioassay is simple, reliable and convenient method for assessment of bioactivity of medicinal plants and extends the support for further research.
  T. Ayyappan and S. Ramachandran
  The aim of this study is to focus on the TQM approach in manufacturing industries to sustain the over all productivity through employees effective participation at research. This study explores the importance of TQM concepts and the impact of TQM approach for aligning employees towards voluntary participation in their work and to achieve the objective of the organisation. TQM occupies a vital part in business strategy to achieve in relation to the product, cost, quality, services and satisfy the over all needs of customers. It helps the management to co-ordinate every one towards objectives of the organisation. Also, it creates employee’s active participation in product/process development and increases the self discipline of the entire organisation to perform the business excellence on par with the best industries at national and international levels. Again this study focussing on new concepts of TQM implementation to get effective co-ordination from all the people in the organisation for strengthening the employees voluntary participation effectively and to achieve continuous improvement by increasing motivation and commitment. These are making flexibility with suitable climate to meet challenges in the competitive business environment in an organisation. It is a bridge to reach the goal of an organisation.
  S. Balaji and S. Ramachandran
  Coffee in spite of the fact that a critical ware in India’s farming fares has confronted fluctuating global costs and diminishing unit esteem acknowledgment, particularly in the post-change period. Henceforth, household advertise for espresso can’t be dismissed out and out. Truth be told, Coffee Board has proposed a limited time crusade to expand local interest for espresso. In this unique situation, it ends up noticeably important to comprehend climate the accentuation ought to be on value motivations or non value variables. We evaluate espresso interest for the Indian residential market utilizing the dynamic blunder redress procedure (ECM). Comes about demonstrate that while interest for espresso is inelastic over the long haul, it is very inelastic in the short-run. This recommends Coffee Board may concentrate endeavors on non-value considers as opposed to value impetuses in their non-specific espresso limited time crusade.
  S. Balaji and S. Ramachandran
  Interfirm connections present new difficulties for administration bookkeeping. One such test is the arrangement of data for the coordination and advancement of exercises crosswise over firms in an esteem chain. As indicated by the writing, an esteem chain investigation (VCA) is a helpful instrument to address this difficulty. Be that as it may, minimal experimental proof has been distributed on the utilization of this examination practically speaking. This study shows a contextual investigation on the utilization of a movement Based Costing (ABC) demonstrate by a substantial UK retail firm and a gathering of providers for supporting their inventory network administration (SCM) hones. This cost model depended on the standards of significant worth chain examination and coordinated cost data over the inventory network. It was utilized to enhance inventory network operations by performing benchmark examinations, vital imagine a scenario in which investigations and cost observing. A translation of the case discoveries is given utilizing hierarchical hypothesis and exchange cost financial aspects.
  R. Vasumathi and S. Ramachandran
  We concentrate the utilization of execution estimation frameworks in general society part. We estimate that the path in which these frameworks are being utilized influences authoritative execution and that these execution impacts rely on upon contractibility. Contractibility envelops clearness of objectives, the capacity to choose undistorted execution measurements and how much administrators know and control the change procedure. We expect that open sector associations that utilization their execution estimation frameworks in ways that match the attributes of their exercises beat those that neglect to accomplish such fit. We test our speculations utilizing study information from 101 open part associations. Our discoveries demonstrate that contractibility directs the connection between the motivation situated utilization of the execution estimation framework and execution. Utilizing the execution estimation framework for motivation purposes adversely impacts authoritative execution, yet, this impact is less serious when contractibility is high. We additionally find that an exploratory utilization of the execution estimation framework tends to improve execution, this beneficial outcome is autonomous of the level of contractility. The adequacy of the presentation of execution estimation frameworks out in the open area associations in this manner depends both on contractibility and on how the framework is being utilized by administrators. These discoveries have imperative ramifications, both for practice and for open arrangement.
  S. Ramachandran , G. Poovi and M.D. Dhanaraju
  In the present study controlled release formulation of famotidine was investigated for its gastric and duodenal antiulcer activity in rats. Ulcers were produced in rats by pyloric ligation method and aspirin induced ulcer in rats. The animals were divided separately for both experiments. In each method animals were divided into four groups of six animals each. Group 1 served as normal control that received only distilled water. Group II served as disease control in which the animals were maintained under same environmental conditions but surgical manipulations done like other groups. Group III received standard drug famotidine 12 mg kg-1 orally. Group IV received famotidine formulation respectively with a dose equivalent to Famotidine 12 mg kg-1 orally as suspension. The antiulcer activity of pyloric ligated and aspirin induced animals were correlated for the reduction in ulcer levels. Parameters like volume of gastric secretion, pH, total acid and ulcer index were calculated and was concluded that the group received famotidine formulation exhibited significant antiulcer activity by both methods as compared to standard drug famotidine. The stomach biopsy of all the groups were analyzed and was found that rats which received famotidine formulation and standard famotidine showed good healing of ulcers when compared to disease control group of animals. The mean volume of gastric secretions, mean pH mean total acid and ulcer index for famotidine formulation treated group was calculated as 2.76 mL, 5.65, 112 mEq L-1 and 1.68, respectively. From the results it can be concluded that famotidine formulation exhibited significant antiulcer effect and the histopathology report also supports and confirm its effect.
  J. Scaria , S. Ramachandran , P.K. Jain and S.K. Verma
  A plasmid containing a transcriptional fusion between tetR regulated tet promoter from plasmid pOT182 and Enhanced Green Fluorescent Protein (EGFP) gene was created and was transformed into E. coli JM109 and this strain was used as whole cell bacterial biosensor for detection of tetracyclines in milk and water samples. The sensor strain E. coli JM109 (pJSKV41) was able to detect tetracycline in the range of 10-60 ng mL-1 sample and oxytetracycline in the range of 25-125 ng mL-1 of sample. When employed for detecting residual tetracyclines in pond water samples, the biosensor strain showed high sensitivity. Also the biosensor strain was able to detect residual tetracycline in goat milk even after 4 days of tetracycline treatment.
 
 
 
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